Interactive guide to the plants
of Val Rosandra (Trieste, NE Italy)

1Leaves needle- or scale-like2
1Leaves neither needle- nor scale-like9
2Leaves scale-like3
2Leaves needle-like4
3Branches not flattened, spreading in all directions. Cones globose, >1 cm wide
Cupressus sempervirens L.
3Branches strongly flattened, more or less arranged on the same plane. Cones oval, <1 cm wide
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco
4Shrubs <3 m. Leaves arranged in whorls, <4 cm long. Cones globose, somewhat fleshy5
4Trees >3 m. Leaves arranged in pairs, >4 cm. Cones conical, woody7
5Leaves (actually modified stems!) without paler lines. Flowers with petals
Asparagus acutifolius L.
5Leaves with 1 or 2 paler lines on the upper surface. Flowers without petals6
6Leaves with two paler lines on the upper surface. Cone brownish, >7 mm across
Juniperus oxycedrus L.
6Leaves with a single paler line. Cone bluish-pruinose, usually <7 mm across
Juniperus communis L.
7Leaves >7 cm long
Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold
7Leaves <7 cm long8
8Sheaths at the base of the leaves dark below, pale above. Cones solitary. Crown not umbrella-like
Pinus sylvestris L.
8Sheaths uniformly reddish to brownish. Cones usually in clusters of 3. Crown umbrella-like
Pinus halepensis Mill. subsp. halepensis
9Leaves opposite10
9Leaves alternate43
10Woody climbers11
10Trees or shrubs15
11Leaves compound. Flowers radially symmetrical. Fruit dry12
11Leaves simple. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical. Fruit fleshy13
12Leaves with max. 9 leaflets. Flowers white
Clematis vitalba L.
12Leaves with more than 9 leaflets. Flowers violet
Clematis viticella L.
13 Flowers and fruits arranged in pairs in axils of leaves
Lonicera japonica Thunb.
13Flowers and fruits in groups of more than 3, at the top of stems14
14 Inflorescence sessile
Lonicera caprifolium L.
14 Inflorescence clearly stalked
Lonicera etrusca Santi
15Leaves lobed and palmately-veined16
15Leaves not lobed, pinnately-veined19
16Leaves >10 cm long17
16Leaves <10 cm long18
17Marginal teeth of leaves not ending with a bristle-like point. Fruit-wings forming an acute angle to each other
Acer pseudoplatanus L.
17Marginal teeth of leaves ending with a bristle-like point. Fruit-wings forming an obtuse angle to each other or perpendicular to the fruit-stalk
Acer platanoides L.
18Leaves with 3 lobes
Acer monspessulanum L. subsp. monspessulanum
18Leaves with 5 lobes
Acer campestre L.
19Leaves deeply divided (at least 1/2 way to the midrib)20
19Leaves entire26
20Small shrub <1 m tall. Leaves divided into 3 linear leaflets. Flowers yellow, bilaterally symmetrical
Genista holopetala (Koch) Bald.
20Trees or tall shrubs. Leaflets not linear, more than 3. Flowers not yellow and bilaterally symmetrical21
21Leaves palmate
Aesculus hippocastanum L.
21Leaves pinnate22
22Leaves foul-smelling when bruised. Inflorescences umbrella-like. Fruit fleshy, black
Sambucus nigra L.
22Leaves odourless. Inflorescences not umbrella-like. Fruit dry23
23Leaves usually with less than 7 leaflets. Flowers bright yellow. Fruit swollen, not winged
Staphylea pinnata L.
23Some leaves often with al least 7 leaflets. Flowers not yellow. Fruit not swollen, winged at top24
24 Flowers with white petals. Leaves with 3-4 pairs of stalked leaflets which are 2-3 times as long as wide, the margin entire or weakly toothed. Buds grey
Fraxinus ornus L. subsp. ornus
24 Flowers without petals. Leaves with 4-6 pairs of almost sessile leaflets which are at least 3 times as long as wide, the margin toothed. Buds black to dark brown25
25 Leaflets with more teeth than secundary veins. Buds black
Fraxinus excelsior L. subsp. excelsior
25 Leaflets with as many teeth as secundary veins. Buds greenish brown
Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl subsp. oxycarpa (M.Bieb. ex Willd.) Franco & Rocha Afonso
26Leaves heart-shaped at base
Syringa vulgaris L.
26Leaves not heart-shaped 27
27Leaves evergreen28
27Leaves deciduous33
28Leaves strongly smelling of kitchen sage. Flowers, violet, bilaterally symmetrical
Salvia officinalis L. subsp. officinalis
28Leaves odourless. Flowers not violet, radially symmetrical29
29Leaves silvery grey-green at least on one surface
Olea europaea L.
29Leaves green30
30Leaf-margin finely toothed
Phillyrea latifolia L.
30Leaf-margin entire31
31Flowers without petals, in leaf-axils. Leaves ovate, the apex often notched
Buxus sempervirens L.
31Flowers with petals, not in leaf-axils. Leaves never notched at apex32
32Leaves hairy at least beneath. Flowers arranged in corymbs. Petals 5
Viburnum tinus L. subsp. tinus
32Leaves hairless. Flowers arranged in racemes. Petals 4
Ligustrum vulgare L.
33Leaves green above, white-hairy beneath34
33Leaves green on both surfaces35
34Leaves stalked. Flowers white, arranged in corymbs. Fruit fleshy
Viburnum lantana L.
34Leaves sessile. Flowers violet (rarely white), in elongated racemes. Fruit dry
Buddleja davidii Franch.
35Twigs ending in a spine
Rhamnus cathartica L.
35Twigs not ending in a spine36
36Leaf-margin toothed37
36Leaf-margin entire40
37Flowers >1 cm. Stamens more than 5
Philadelphus coronarius L.
37Flowers <8 mm. Stamens max. 538
38Flowers in groups of 5-15, on 4-6 cm long pedicels. Leaves usually >8 cm long. Petals 4 or 5
Euonymus latifolius (L.) Mill.
38Flowers in groups of 2-6, on 1-3 cm long pedicels. Leaves usually <8 cm long. Petals 439
39Young twigs 4-angled, without black warts. Petals yellowish green
Euonymus europaeus L.
39Young twigs cylindrical, with obvious black warts. Petals reddish-brown
Euonymus verrucosus Scop.
40Flowers yellow, produced before the leaves. Fruits red, elliptic, in leaf-axils
Cornus mas L.
40Flowers white, produced after the leaves. Fruits dark, subglobose, not in leaf-axils41
41Leaf-stalk <5 mm. Petals fused. Inflorescence a raceme
Ligustrum vulgare L.
41Leaf-stalk >5 mm. Petals free. Inflorescence a corymb42
42 Leaves with erect hairs beneath (lens!). The most widespread subspecies
Cornus sanguinea L. subsp. hungarica (Kárpáti) Soó
42 Leaves without erect hairs beneath (all hairs appressed). Apparently restricted to wet sites along water basins and rivers
Cornus sanguinea L. subsp. australis (C.A.Mey.) Jáv.
43Leaves compound (divided into separate leaflets)44
43Leaves simple (but sometimes deeply lobed)66
44Leaves with 3 leaflets45
44Leaves with more than 3 leaflets48
45Plants without spines. Flowers yellow. Fruit dry46
45Plants with spines. Flowers not yellow. Fruit fleshy47
46Tree >2 m. Inflorescence drooping. Leaves >5 cm long
Laburnum anagyroides Medik. subsp. anagyroides
46Shrub <2 m. Inflorescences erect. Leaves <5 cm long
Cytisus nigricans L.
47Stipules thread-like, not constricted at base. Fruit black when ripe, not blue-frosted
Rubus canescens DC.
47Stipules lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, constricted at base. Fruit bluish when ripe, blue-frosted
Rubus caesius L.
48Leaves palmate49
48Leaves pinnate51
49Plant without spines. Fruit a berry
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.
49Plants with spines. Fruit a mulberry50
50Petals pink. Shoots pruinose, without glandular hairs (lens!)
Rubus ulmifolius Schott
50Petals usually white. Shoots not pruinose, with glandular hairs
Rubus canescens DC.
51Leaves not ending with a terminal leaflet (paripinnate)
Gleditsia triacanthos L.
51Leaves ending with a terminal leaflet (imparipinnate)52
52Leaves 2-4-pinnate
Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald
52Leaves 1-pinnate53
53Plants with spines, thorns or prickles54
53Plants without spines, thorns or prickles60
54Tree >4 m. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical. Fruit dry (a legume)
Robinia pseudoacacia L.
54Shrubs <4 m. Flowers radially symmetrical. Fruit fleshy55
55Petals white56
55Petals pink57
56 Leaves evergreen-leathery, shiny and hairless above. Leaflets with 20-30 teeth on each side
Rosa sempervirens L.
56 Leaves deciduous, herbaceous, dull above, hairy on the veins beneath. Leaflets with less than 20 teeth on each side
Rosa arvensis Huds.
57Leaves somewhat leathery, those in the middle of flowering branches with 5 leaflets. Petals (25-) 30-45 mm
Rosa gallica L.
57Leaves thin, not leathery, those in the middle of flowering branches with 7 leaflets. Petals 8-25 (30) mm58
58Fruit stalks with at least some glandular hairs (often mixed with simple hairs)
Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm.
58Fruit stalks glabrous or with sparse simple hairs59
59 Leaflets narrowly elliptic to ovate, usually hairless on both sides (except sometimes on the main veins on lowerside)
Rosa canina L.
59 Leaflets broadly ovate to rounded, hairy on both sides
Rosa corymbifera Borkh.
60Leaves with a strong smell when bruised61
60Leaves more or less odourless63
61Leaves of young twigs foul-smelling when bruised, usually with more than 11 leaflets. Fruit winged
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
61Leaves not foul-smelling, with less than 11 leaflets. Fruit not winged62
62Tree >5 m at maturity. Fruits >1 cm
Juglans regia L.
62Shrub <4 m at maturity. Fruits <1 cm
Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. terebinthus
63Leaf-margin toothed. Flowers white, radially symmetrical. Fruit fleshy
Sorbus domestica L.
63Leaf-margin entire. Flowers not white, bilaterally symmetrical. Fruit dry64
64Flowers violet, arranged in long spike-like inflorescences
Amorpha fruticosa L.
64Flowers yellow, not arranged in spike-like inflorescences65
65Flowers arranged in racemes. Leaves >10 cm long. Fruit strongly swollen
Colutea arborescens L.
65Flowers arranged in umbels. Leaves usually <10 cm. Fruit not swollen
Emerus major Mill. subsp. emeroides (Boiss. & Spruner) Soldano & F.Conti
66Woody climbers67
66Trees or shrubs69
67Leaves not lobed, pinnately-veined. Flowers white. Fruit dry
Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub
67Leaves lobed, palmately-veined. Flowers not white. Fruit fleshy68
68Leaves evergreen. Flowers and fruits arranged in umbels. Leaf-margin not toothed
Hedera helix L. subsp. helix
68Leaves deciduous. Flowers and fruits arranged in racemes. Leaf-margin toothed
Vitis vinifera L.
69Leaves lobed70
69Leaves not lobed79
70Twigs ending with a spine71
70Twigs not ending with a spine72
71 Leaves with a few teeth-lobes only at the apex. Style and seed 1
Crataegus monogyna Jacq.
71 Leaves toothed-lobed all round. Styles and seeds 2-3
Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC.
72Plant with a milky sap
Ficus carica L.
72Plants without milky sap73
73Leaves more or less pentagonal in outline, white-hairy beneath
Populus alba L.
73Leaves not pentagonal in outline, green beneath74
74Flowers with petals. Flowers ard fruits arranged in corymbs
Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz
74Flowers without petals. Flowers and fruits not arranged in corymbs75
75Fruit fleshy, mulberry-like. Leaves lobed in the upper part only, the lobes pointing forward76
75Fruit dry (acorn). Leaves lobed all around, the lobes not pointing forward77
76 Leaves finely and densely hairy, dull above. Fruit globose
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.
76Leaves hairless to sparsely hairy, somewhat shiny above when young. Fruit elliptical
Morus alba L.
77Cup of acorns with long, patent scales (look for fallen acorns below the tree!)
Quercus cerris L.
77Cup of acorns with short adpressed scales78
78Leaves hairless beneath, except sometimes at the bifurcation of veins. Young twigs hairless
Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. subsp. petraea
78Leaves (at least when young) hairy beneath. Young twigs hairy
Quercus pubescens Willd. subsp. pubescens
79Leaves more or less triangular or rhombic in outline80
79Leaves not triangular nor rhombic in outline83
80Leaves with a very different colour on the two faces81
80Leaves with a similar colour on the two faces82
81 Leaves grey-green beneath. Floral bracts with long teeth
Populus canescens (Aiton) Sm.
81 Leaves white-hairy beneath. Floral bracts with short teeth
Populus alba L.
82Leaf-margin with dense acute teeth. Bark white and papery. Fruits not a capsule, in structures resembling small cones
Betula pendula Roth
82Leaf-margin with sparse blunt teeth. Bark not papery. Fruits capsules, arranged in racemes
Populus nigra L. subsp. nigra
83Leaves heart-shaped at base84
83Leaves not heart-shaped at base90
84Leaves rounded at top. Flowers purple
Cercis siliquastrum L. subsp. siliquastrum
84Leaves acute. Flowers of other coulours85
85Leaves <5 cm wide. Leaf-stalk <1 cm. Petals white. Fruit fleshy (drupe), black at maturity
Prunus mahaleb L.
85Leaves usually >5 cm wide. Leaf-stalk >1 cm. Petals absent or not white. Fruit dry or mulberry -like, not black at maturity86
86Trees >10 m at maturity. Fruit stalks with a transversal wing87
86Shrubs or small trees <8 m at maturity. Fruit stalks without a wing88
87Leaves with rusty hairs at the bifurcation of veins beneath. Fruit with indistinct ribs
Tilia cordata Mill.
87Leaves with whitish hairs at the bifurcation of veins beneath. Fruit with 5 longitudinal ribs
Tilia platyphyllos Scop.
88Fruit dry (hazelnut). Leaves not lobed
Corylus avellana L.
88Fruit fleshy. Some leaves often lobed89
89Leaves glabrous or very sparsely hairy, somewhat shiny above when young. Fruit elliptical
Morus alba L.
89 Leaves finely and densely hairy, dull above. Fruit globose
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.
90Leaves evergreen, leathery91
90Leaves deciduous, not leathery93
91Leaves strongly smelling of bay when bruised
Laurus nobilis L.
91Leaves odourless92
92Tree. Leaves grey-hairy beneath at least when young. Fruit an acorn
Quercus ilex L. subsp. ilex
92Small shrub. Leaves (actually modified stems) green on both surfaces. Fruit a red berry
Ruscus aculeatus L.
93Leaves with a strong resinous scent when bruised
Cotinus coggygria Scop.
93Leaves almost odourless94
94Plants with spines or thorns95
94Plants without spines or thorns97
95Leaf-margin entire. Spines on the twigs. Fruit dry, winged
Paliurus spina-christi Mill.
95Leaf-margin toothed. Spines at the end of twigs. Fruit fleshy96
96Petals free, white. Fruit bluish at maturity, pruinose
Prunus spinosa L. subsp. spinosa
96Petals fused at base, yellowish green. Fruit first red then black, not pruinose
Rhamnus cathartica L.
97Leaf veins forming a clear net. Plants with unisexual flowers arranged in erect, male and female spikes. Fruit a capsule (willows)98
97Plants with other features102
98Leaves <4 times as long as wide99
98Leaves >4 times as long as wide100
99Twigs of 2-4 years with smooth wood (peel the twigs!). Anthers yellow
Salix caprea L.
99Twigs of 2-4 years with ridged wood. Anthers usually reddish
Salix cinerea L.
100Mature leaves white-hairy beneath
Salix alba L.
100Mature leaves more or less hairless beneath101
101Leaves shiny above, <6 times as long as wide. Leaf-stalks with 1-3 pairs of glands (lens!). Fruits glabrous
Salix triandra L. subsp. triandra
101Leaves dull above, up to 10 times as long as wide. Leaf-stalks without glands. Fruits hairy
Salix purpurea L.
102Leaves green above, grey- to white-hairy beneath103
102Leaves green on both surfaces104
103Small shrub, rarely >2 m tall. Leaves usually <5 cm long. Fruit dark at maturity
Amelanchier ovalis Medik. subsp. ovalis
103Small tree, >2 m tall at maturity. Leaves >5 cm long. Fruit red at maturity
Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz
104Leaf-margin entire105
104Leaf-margin toothed110
105Tree >10 m at maturity. Leaf-margin hairy
Fagus sylvatica L. subsp. sylvatica
105Shrubs <8 m at maturity. Leaf-margin hairless106
106Flowers bilaterally symmetrical. Fruit a legume
Spartium junceum L.
106Flowers radially symmetrical. Fruit fleshy107
107Leaves <7 mm wide108
107Leaves >7 mm wide109
108Petals 4, whitish, fused. Leaves present in summer, with 2-3 mm long stalks
Daphne alpina L. subsp. scopoliana Urbani
108Petals 3, yellow, free. Leaves present in winter but often absent in summer, sessile
Osyris alba L.
109Small shrub <2 m. Leaves usually <2.5 cm wide, crowded at the top of the stems. Flowers violet-pink, borne before the leaves
Daphne mezereum L.
109Tree or tall shrub. Leaves usually >2.5 cm wide, not crowded at the top of stems. Flowers whitish, borne after the leaves
Frangula alnus Mill. subsp. alnus
110Leaf base asymmetrical111
110Leaf base symmetrical114
111Leaves with at least 3 main veins diverging from the base. Fruit fleshy
Celtis australis L. subsp. australis
111Leaves with a single main vein. Fruit dry, winged112
112Young twigs hairy. Longer side of leaf with a lobe covering the leaf-stalk. Upper face of leaves very rough, dull, dark green
Ulmus glabra Huds.
112 Young twigs glabrous. Longer side of leaf without a lobe covering the stalk. Upper face of leaves different113
113 Upper face of leaves smooth, somewhat shiny, glabrous. Lower face glabrous
Ulmus minor Mill. subsp. minor
113 Upper face of leaves rough, dull. Lower face hairy or very rough
Ulmus pumila L.
114Small shubs <2 m at maturity115
114Trees or high shrubs, >2 m at maturity116
115Leaf apex rounded. Petals white, free. Leaf-stalk >1 cm long
Amelanchier ovalis Medik. subsp. ovalis
115Leaf apex pointed. Petals greenish, fused at base. Leaf-stalk <1 cm long
Frangula rupestris (Scop.) Schur
116Flowers without petals. Fruit dry117
116Flowers with petals. Fruit fleshy121
117Leaves >15 cm long. Fruits covered by a spiny husk (chestnut)
Castanea sativa Mill.
117Leaves >15 cm long. Fruits not covered by a spiny husk118
118Fruits unwinged, gathered in compact structures similar to small cones. Young twigs sticky
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
118Fruits winged. Young twigs not sticky119
119Leaves widest in lower half, with more than 14 pairs of veins. Fruit-wing entire
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.
119Leaves widest in the middle, with max. 14 pairs of veins. Fruit-wing 3-lobed120
120 Leaves <4 cm long, the stalk 2-4 mm long
Carpinus orientalis Mill. subsp. orientalis
120 Leaves >4 cm long, the stalk >1 cm long
Carpinus betulus L.
121Petals pink. Fruit finely hairy (peach)
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
121Petals white, or pink only in part. Fruit glabrous122
122Fruit with several seeds, topped by the dry remains of the calyx123
122Fruit with a single seed, not topped by the dry remains of the calyx124
123Leaves dull above. Anthers whitish. Styles fused at base. Fruit not pear-shaped (apple)
Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.
123Leaves somehow shiny above. Anthers red. Styles free. Fruit pear-shaped
Pyrus communis L. subsp. communis
124Leaves widest in lower half. Leaf-stalk <1.5 cm long
Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.
124Leaves widest in the middle or in the upper half. Leaf-stalk >1.5 cm long125
125Leaves clearly hairy at least beneath. Fruit oval, blue-frosted (plum)
Prunus domestica L.
125Leaves glabrous or with a few hairs only. Fruit globose, not blue-frosted (cherry)
Prunus avium (L.) L.