Interactive guide to the flora
of the dry grasslands (magredi) of Cordenons-Vivaro (Pordenone, NE Italy)

1Plant spiny. Flowers with petals, in heads
Dipsacus fullonum L. subsp. fullonum

1Plant with stinging hairs. Flowers without petals, not in heads
Urtica dioica L. subsp. dioica

2Plant with a white latex3
2Plant without latex5
3Stem erect to ascending. Leaves >1.8 cm long
Euphorbia nutans Lag.

3Stem creeping. Leaves <1.5 cm long4
4Leaves without a reddish spot
Euphorbia humifusa Willd. ex Schlecht.

4Leaves with a reddish spot in the middle
Euphorbia maculata L.

5Flowers without petals
Mercurialis annua L.

5Flowers with petals6
6Flowers in heads7
6Flowers not in heads13
7Leaves linear and grey-hairy
Lomelosia graminifolia (L.) Greuter & Burdet subsp. graminifolia

7Leaves not linear and grey-hairy8
8All flowers yellow
Helianthus tuberosus L.

8At least some flowers not yellow9
9Ray flowers white, central flowers yellow10
9All flowers pink to violet11
10Upper part of stem glabrous or with sparse appressed hairs
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

10Upper part of stem with almost erect glandular hairs
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.

11Peripheral flowers similar to the central ones, regular
Succisa pratensis Moench

11Peripheral flowers larger than the central ones and irregular12
12Flowering stems born besides a rosette of basal leaves
Knautia drymeja Heuff. subsp. drymeja

12Flowering stems born at the center of a rosette of leaves (sometimes withered at flowering)
Knautia ressmannii (Pacher) Briq.

13Flowers bilaterally symmetrical14
13Flowers radially symmetrical50
14Corolla with a spur15
14Corolla without spur17
15Flowers white to greenish. Leaves >2 cm wide
Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich.

15Flowers at least in part violet. Leaves <2 cm wide16
16Flower-stalks (5-)8-20 mm. Corolla 6-9 mm. Capsule oval, c. 3 x 5 mm
Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange subsp. minus

16Flower-stalks 3-8 mm. Corolla 4-6 mm. Capsule globose
Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange subsp. litorale (Willd.) Hayek

17Leaves clearly parallel-veined
Neottia ovata (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.

17Leaves not parallel-veined or veins indistinct18
18Petals yellow to yellowish19
18Petals not yellow23
19Leaves grey-hairy below. Corolla with the lower lip only
Teucrium montanum L.

19Leaves not grey-hairy below. Corolla 2-lipped20
20Shrub >1.5 m
Spartium junceum L.

20Herbs <1.5 m21
21Petals pale yellow. Fruit not a capsule. Calyx not flattened
Stachys recta L. subsp. recta

21Petals deep yellow. Fruit a capsule. Calyx strongly flattened22
22Upper lip of corolla with a nose of max 1 mm
Rhinanthus minor L.

22Nose of 1.3-2.5 mm
Rhinanthus pampaninii Chabert subsp. pampaninii

23Petals white24
23Petals blue to pink25
24Leaves >1 cm wide. Corolla 2-lipped
Nepeta cataria L.

24Leaves <1 cm wide. Corolla with the lower lip oly
Teucrium montanum L.

25Flowers with the lower lip only26
25Flowers clearly 2-lipped28
26Plant woody at base. Flowers pink
Teucrium chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys

26Plant herbaceous. Flowers blue-violet27
27Stem hairy all round in upper half. Plant without stolons
Ajuga genevensis L.

27Stem hairy on opposite faces in upper half. Plant with long, creeping stolons
Ajuga reptans L.

28Fruit a capsule. Flowers in long leafless racemes
Scrophularia nodosa L.

28Fruit a cluster of four 1-seeded nutlets (extract the corolla and observe the ovary with a lens!). Flowers not in leafless racemes29
29Upper lip of flowers not hood-shaped30
29Upper lip hood-shaped39
30Calyx not 2-lipped, the teeth almost equal31
30Calyx 2-lipped, the teeth unequal, 3 on one side, 2 on the other35
31Leaves <6 mm wide
Satureja montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P.W.Ball

31Leaves >6 mm wide32
32Stamens 2. Plant of wet sites
Lycopus europaeus L.

32Stamens 4. Plants absent from wet sites33
33Leaves rounded at base. Flowers pink
Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare

33Leaves truncate to heart-shaped at base. Flowers white or pale blue-violet34
34Stems prostrate to ascending. Flowers in pairs in leaf-axils
Glechoma hederacea L.

34Stems erect. Flowers numerous at the top of stems
Nepeta cataria L.

35Stamens with diverging filaments. Plant smelling of thyme36
35Stamens with converging filaments. Plant not smelling of thyme37
36Stems creeping, hairy on opposite faces only
Thymus longicaulis C.Presl subsp. longicaulis

36Stems not creeping, hairy only along corners (lens!)
Thymus pulegioides L.

37Flowers 10-20 in each whorl
Clinopodium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare

37Flowers 2-8 in each whorl38
38 Annual. Leaves with prominent veins on lowerside.Corolla <1 cm long
Ziziphora villosa (Pers.) Melnikov

38 Perennial. Leaves with shallow veins on lowerside. Corolla >1 cm long
Ziziphora granatensis (Boiss. & Reut.) Melnikov subsp. alpina (L.) Bräuchler & Gutermann

39Leaves <1.5 cm wide40
39Leaves >1.5 cm wide41
40Plant of wet sites. Lower lip of flower without conical outgrowths
Stachys palustris L.

40Plant of dry sites. Lower lip of flower with two conical outgrowths at base
Galeopsis angustifolia Ehrh. ex Hoffm. subsp. angustifolia

41Calyx 2-lipped, the teeth unequal, 3 on one side, 2 on the other42
41Calyx not 2-lipped, the teeth almost equal44
42Inflorescences >10 cm long. Stamens 2
Salvia pratensis L.

42Inflorescences oval, <10 cm. Stamens 4 43
43Corolla <20 mm long, the tube straight. Inflorescence with 2 bracts appressed to 2 normal leaves
Prunella vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris

43Corolla >20 mm long, the tube bent upwards. Inflorescence with 2 bracts only, the true leaves lying 1-2 cm below
Prunella grandiflora (L.) Scholler

44Lower lip of flower with two conical outgrowths at base
Galeopsis tetrahit L.

44Lower lip without conical outgrowths45
45Basal leaves in a rosette and present at flowering
Betonica officinalis L.

45Basal leaves not in a rosette and usually absent at flowering46
46Lower lip of flowers 3-lobed, with 2 well-developed lobes at base47
46Lower lip with basal lobes indistinct, or reduced to short teeth48
47Calyx widest at top, <3.5 mm long
Ballota nigra L. subsp. meridionalis (Bég.) Bég.

47Calyx widest near base, >3.5 mm long
Stachys sylvatica L.

48Corolla tube curved (extract the corolla from the calyx!)
Lamium maculatum L.

48Tube straight49
49Plant perennial, >3 dm tall. Corolla >2 cm long
Lamium orvala L.

49Plant annual, < 2dm tall. Corolla <2 cm long
Lamium purpureum L.

50Leaves with a strong scent of mint51
50Leaves without scent of mint52
51Leaf-stalks >2 mm. Inflorescence globose to oval. Plant hairless
Mentha aquatica L. subsp. aquatica

51Leaf-stalks absent or <2 mm. Inflorescence cylindrical. Plant hairy
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.

52Petals yellow53
52Petals not yellow59
53Petals fused at least at base54
53Petals free56
54Petals more than 5
Blackstonia perfoliata (L.) Huds. subsp. perfoliata

54Petals 555
55Leaves <3 cm long. Stems prostrate
Lysimachia nummularia L.

55Leaves >3 cm long. Stems erect
Lysimachia vulgaris L.

56Leaves thick, fleshy. Sepals 2
Portulaca oleracea L.

56Leaves thin, not fleshy. Sepals more than 257
57Sepals 5, of equal length. Leaves with small transparent dots
Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum

57Sepals apparently 3 (actually 5, 3 of which much wider than the others). Leaves without transparent dots58
58Leaves without stipules
Helianthemum oelandicum (L.) Dum.Cours. subsp. alpestre (Jacq.) Ces.

58Leaves with stipules
Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Mill. subsp. obscurum (Čelak.) Holub

59Leaf margin toothed to lobed60
59Leaf margin entire65
60Flowers pink. Low shrub, stem woody below. Leaves green on upperside, white-hairy on lowersi
Buddleja davidii Franch.

60Flowers blue. Herbs. Leaves not white-hairy on lowerside61
61Flowers in racemes originating in leaf-axils
Veronica chamaedrys L. subsp. chamaedrys

61Flowers in terminal leafless spikes, or solitary in leaf-axils62
62Flowers in terminal, leafless spikes
Veronica barrelieri H.Schott ex Roem. & Schult. subsp. nitens (Host) Albach

62Flowers in leaf-axils63
63Flowers crowded at top of stem, in axils of leaves smaller than those lying below
Veronica arvensis L.

63Flowers not crowded at the top of stems, in axils of normal leaves64
64Leaves 3-lobed. Capsule globose, non flattened
Veronica hederifolia L.

64Leaves not 3-lobed. Capsule strongly flattened, heart-shaped at top
Veronica persica Poir.

65Petals not white66
65Petals white81
66Petals fused at least at the base (extract the corolla and use a lens!)67
66Petals completely free72
67Petals bright orange-red
Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U.Manns & Anderb. subsp. arvensis

67Petals of other colours68
68Petals pink
Centaurium erythraea Rafn subsp. erythraea

68Petals blue69
69Leaves clearly parallel-veined. Corolla tube >5 mm70
69Leaves not parallel-veined. Corolla tube <5 mm71
70Flowers more than one. Annual
Gentiana utriculosa L.

70Flowers single. Perennial
Gentiana verna L. subsp. verna

71Petals deep blue. Flowers in axils of leaves, >4 mm across
Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U.Manns & Anderb. subsp. arvensis

71Petals pale blue. Flowers not in axils of leaves, <4 mm across
Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr.

72Small shrub with almost scale-like leaves
Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull

72Herbaceous. Leaves not scale-like73
73Petals 6, entire, bright-coloured
Lythrum salicaria L.

73Petals 5, 2-lobed, toothed or fringed, pale pink74
74At least the basal leaves > 5 mm75
74Leaves < 5 mm76
75Petals deeply divided
Lychnis flos-cuculi L. subsp. flos-cuculi

75Petals weakly 2-lobed
Saponaria officinalis L.

76Flowers <7 mm across77
76Flowers >1 cm across79
77Calyx without basal bracts
Gypsophyla repens L.

77Calyx with sepal- to scale-like bracts at the base78
78 Flowers not in clusters surrounded by brown bracts. Leaves > 1 cm long. Perennial
Petrorhagia saxifraga (L.) Link subsp. saxifraga

78 Flowers in clusters surrounded by brown bracts. Leaves to 4 cm long. Annual
Petrorhagia prolifera (L.) P.W.Ball & Heywood

79Flowers in apical whorls surrounded by bracts
Dianthus sanguineus Vis.

79Flowers not in apical whorls80
80 Stems with 3-5 flowers, 30-60 cm tall. Lower leaves more or less erect, flexuous. Enlarged part of petals 10-15 mm long
Dianthus hyssopifolius L.

80 Stems with 1-2 flowers, 10-25 cm tall. Lower leaves spreading to drooping, rigid. Enlarged part of petals 12-18 mm long
Dianthus monspessulanus L. subsp. waldsteinii (Sternb.) Nyman

81Petals fused at least at base82
81Petals free83
82At least the lower leaves stalked. Flowers >3 mm across
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik. subsp. hirundinaria

82All leaves sessile. Flowers max. 3 mm across
Valerianella rimosa Bastard

83Petals entire84
83Petals 2-lobed to bifid87
84Leaves not linear85
84Leaves linear86
85Stamens 10. Styles 3
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. subsp. serpyllifolia

85Stamens 5. Styles 5
Linum catharticum L. subsp. catharticum

86Sepals > petals
Sabulina tenuifolia (L.) Rchb. subsp. tenuifolia

86Sepals max. = petals
Cherleria capillacea (All.) A.J.Moore & Dillenb.

87Sepals fused88
87Sepals free91
88Styles 5 (lens!)
Silene latifolia Poir.

88Styles 389
89Calyx not swollen. Plant sticky at least in upper part
Silene nutans L. subsp. nutans

89Calyx strongly swollen. Plant not sticky90
90 Stems 3-7 dm tall, not creeping, with 3-9 flowers. Bracts of inflorescence membranous
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. vulgaris

90 Stems 1-2 dm tall, creeping at base, usually with 1-2 flowers. Bracts herbaceous
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. glareosa (Jord.) Marsden-Jones & Turrill

91Capsule globose to oval, not longer than calyx. Leaves glabrous or very sparsely hairy92
91Capsule cylindrical, at least two times as long as calyx. Leaves usually hairy93
92Styles 3 (lens!)
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. subsp. media

92Styles 5
Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop.

93Plant perennial, with short sterile shoots94
93Plant annual, without sterile shoots95
94Petals > 1.5 times as long as calyx. Anthers 0.7-1.2 mm long
Cerastium sylvaticum Waldst. & Kit.

94Petals <1.5 times as long as calyx. Anthers 0.3-0.7 mm long
Cerastium holosteoides Fr.

95Sepals surmounted by a tuft of hairs96
95Sepals hairless at top, with a membranous margin (lens!)98
96Fruit-stalks equal or shorter than calyx
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

96Fruit-stalks longer than calyx97
97 Fruit-stalks and upper part of stem with hairs pointing downwards, mixed with glandular hairs (lens!)
Cerastium brachypetalum Desp. ex Pers. subsp. brachypetalum

97Fruit-stalks and upper part of stem with erect simple hairs only
Cerastium brachypetalum Desp. ex Pers. subsp. tenoreanum (Ser.) Soó

98 Lower bracts of inflorescence similar to leaves, hairy on both sides and green throughout
Cerastium pumilum Curtis

98 Lower bracts resembling to sepals, hairless un upperside and with a membranous apex99
99 Lower bracts membranous only at apex (1/5 of their length)
Cerastium glutinosum Fr.

99 Lower bracts membranous for 1/3- 1/2 of their length
Cerastium semidecandrum L.

100Leaves divided101
100Leaves entire252
101Leaves 3-foliolate102
101Leaves not 3-foliolate129
102With spines
Ononis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa

102Without spines103
103Corolla radially symmetrical104
103Corolla bilaterally symmetrical113
104Petals white105
104Petals yellow108
105Petals 4
Cardamine trifolia L.

105Petals 5 or more106
106Calyx present. Fruit fleshy
Fragaria moschata Weston

106Calyx absent. Fruit dry107
107 Leaf segments. lobed. Anthers yellow
Anemonoides nemorosa (L.) Holub

107 Leaf segments regularly toothed. Anthers white
Anemonoides trifolia (L.) Holub subsp. trifolia

108Leaf margin toothed to lobed109
108Leaf margin entire111
109Leaves without stipules
Ranunculus repens L.

109Leaves with stipules110
110Stem creeping. Flowers solitary. Fruit fleshy, strawberry-like
Potentilla indica (Andrews) Th.Wolf

110Stems erect. Flowers not solitary. Fruit dry
Geum urbanum L.

111 With whitish subterranean stolons. Stipules absent
Oxalis stricta L.

111Without stolons. Stipules present112
112Leaves usually reddish. Seeds with 6-8 transversal ridges, without white lines (microscope!)
Oxalis corniculata L.

112Leaves green. Seeds with 8-10 transversal white ridges
Oxalis stricta L.

113Petals not yellow114
113Petals yellow120
114Petals white115
114Petals not white117
115Inflorescences at least 6 times as long as wide
Trigonella alba (Medik.) Coulot & Rabaute

115Inflorescences globose to oval116
116Stems creeping and rooting at nodes. Leaves almost hairless
Trifolium repens L.

116Stems erect. Leaves hairy
Trifolium montanum L. subsp. montanum

117Corolla >1.5 cm long. Plant woody at base
Cytisus purpureus Scop.

117Corolla <1.5 cm long. Plant herbaceous118
118Fruit curved. Flowers blue-violet
Medicago sativa L.

118Fruit not curved, short, hidden by calyx. Flowers pink to red119
119Inflorescence globose
Trifolium pratense L. subsp. pratense

119Inflorescence at least 3 times as long as wide
Trifolium rubens L.

120Plant woody at least at base121
120Plant herbaceous124
121Leaf margin toothed
Ononis natrix L. subsp. natrix

121Leaf margin entire122
122Corolla >1.5 cm long. Calyx teeth max. as long as tube
Cytisus hirsutus L.

122Corolla <1.5 cm. Calyx teeth longer than tube123
123Flowers in long, terminal, lefless racemes
Cytisus nigricans L.

123Flowers clustered in axils of leaves
Cytisus emeriflorus Rchb.

124Inflorescences >4 times as long as wide
Trigonella officinalis (L.) Coulot & Rabaute

124Inflorescences globose to oval, >4 times as long as wide125
125Standard (upper petal) finely folded. Fruit straight126
125Standard smooth. Fruit curved or spirally twisted127
126Corolla 2-4(-5) mm long. Stipules ovate, not heart-shaped nor clasping stem. Plant of dry sites
Trifolium campestre Schreb.

126Corolla 5-8 mm long. Stipules heart-shaped and clasping stem. Plant of moist sites
Trifolium patens Schreb.

127Inflorescences globose, compact, <7mm wide. Fruit kidney-shaped, <3 mm long
Medicago lupulina L.

127Inflorescences not globose. Fruit elongated, curved or spirally twisted128
128Corolla <6 mm long. Stipules divided into 2 acuminate segments. Fruit spirally twisted
Medicago prostrata Jacq. subsp. prostrata

128Corolla 7-8 mm long. Stipules linear. Fruit sickle-shaped
Medicago falcata L. subsp. falcata

129With spines130
129Without spines135
130Flowers and at least upper part of stems blue
Eryngium amethystinum L.

130Flowers and stems not blue131
131Flowers yellow132
131Flowers pink133
132Leaves >5 cm wide. Heads without radiating bracts
Cirsium oleraceum (L.) Scop.

132Leaves <5 cm wide. Heads with radiating bracts
Carlina vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris

133Heads reclinate at least before flowering. Bracts of involucre divided into two parts, one basal and wider, the other much narrower
Carduus nutans L. subsp. nutans

133Heads erect also before flowering. Bracts not as above134
134Involucre of heads 3-5 cm long. Leaf surface with numerous spinules of 1-1.5 mm. Stems winged and spiny at least in upper part
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. subsp. vulgare

134Involucre 1-2 cm long. Leaf surface without spinules (which are limited to margin). Stems not winged nor spiny
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.

135Leaves arranged in whorls at nodes136
135Leaves not whorled137
136On calcareous substrata. Stem hairs of equal length. Inflorescences with 8-15 flowers
Lotus germanicus (Gremli) Peruzzi

136On siliceous substrata (or terra rossa). Stem hairs of unequal length. Inflorescences usually with 12-25 flowers
Lotus herbaceus (Vill.) Jauzein

137Plants always without flowers (Pteridophytes) or with flowers without petals138
137Plants with flowers and with petals146
138Leaves palmately divided
Aphanes arvensis L.

138Leaves pinnately divided139
139Leaves 1-pinnate140
139Leaves 2-4-pinnate142
140Leaves all basal and <2 cm wide, the main axis black
Asplenium trichomanes L. subsp. quadrivalens D.E.Mey.

140Leaves not as above141
141Plant with flowers. Leaf-margin toothed
Poterium sanguisorba L. subsp. balearicum (Bourg. ex Nyman) Stace

141Plant with sporangia on lowerside of leaves. Leaf-margin entire
Polypodium vulgare L.

142Leaves <15 cm long. Plant typical of walls and rock faces
Asplenium ruta-muraria L. subsp. ruta-muraria

142Leaves >15 cm long. Plant not typical of walls and rock faces143
143Plant with flowers and with leafy stems
Thalictrum aquilegiifolium L. subsp. aquilegiifolium

143Plant without flowers (fern), the leaves all basal (without a stem)144
144Leaf-stalks at least 50 cm long. Plant often >2 m
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn subsp. aquilinum

144Leaf-stalks <50 cm long. Plant always <2 m145
145Sori (spore-bearing structures) rounded
Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott

145Sori longer than wide
Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth

146Flowers in heads with an involucre of bracts147
146Flowers not in heads, or in heads without an involucre of bracts178
147Stems leafless (or with a few short bracts): all leaves basal148
147Stems leafy152
148Stems branched in upper part, with several heads
Hypochaeris radicata L.

148Stems unbranched, ending with a single head149
149Pappus of simple hairs (lens!)150
149Pappus of feather-like hairs (observe the central fruits!)151
150Mature fruits reddish
Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma (H.Lindb.) Dahlst.

150Mature fruits not reddish
Taraxacum F.H.Wigg. sect. Taraxacum

151Plant with a thick vertical root. Fruits 8-15 mm long
Leontodon crispus Vill.

151Plant with a non-vertical rhizome. Fruits 4-8 mm long
Leontodon hispidus L. subsp. hispidus

152Tubular (regular) flowers absent, all flowers ligulate (asymmetrical)153
152Tubular flowers present, ligulate flowers present only at the margin of heads or absent163
153Flowers pale blue
Cichorium intybus L.

153Flowers yellow154
154Fruits without a pappus of hairs
Lapsana communis L. subsp. communis

154Fruits with a pappus of hairs155
155Fruits beakless156
155Fruits with a long beak159
156Leaves usually <5 cm wide and not spinulose at margin. Fruits cylindrical
Crepis biennis L.

156At least the basal leaves >5 cm wide, or spinulose at margin. Fruits strongly compressed (lens!) 157
157Head-stalks and bracts of involucre with yellow glands (lens!)
Sonchus arvensis L. subsp. arvensis

157Head-stalks and bracts without yellow glands158
158Leaves matt, non- or weakly spinulose at margin, clasping stem with two ear-like acute lobes. Fruits spinulose on ribs (lens!)
Sonchus oleraceus L.

158Leaves somehow shiny, strongly spinulose at margin, clasping stem with rounded lobes. Fruits smooth
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill subsp. asper

159Leaves hastate and clasping stem at base. Stem whitish160
159Leaves not hastate at base. Stem green161
160Stem leaves entire. Heads sessile, in linear spikes
Lactuca saligna L.

160Stem leaves toothed to lobed. Heads not sessile, in broad racemes
Lactuca sativa L. subsp. serriola (L.) Galasso, Banfi, Bartolucci & Ardenghi

161Heads with 5 flowers only
Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort. subsp. muralis

161Heads with much more than 5 flowers162
162Fruits of very unequal length, the outer ones 5-9 mm long and beakless, the inner ones 12-17 mm long, with a beak
Crepis foetida L. subsp. rhoeadifolia (M.Bieb.) Čelak.

162Fruits of equal length, all with a beak
Crepis taraxacifolia Thuill.

163All flowers yellow to yellowish164
163At least some flowers not yellow169
164Leaves green-on upperside, white to grey-hairy on lowerside
Artemisia vulgaris L.

164Leaves not as above165
165Leaves strongly smelling when crushed166
165Leaves not strongly smelling when crushed167
166Perennial, woody at least at base. Leaf segments linear
Artemisia alba Turra

166Annual, herbaceous. Leaf segments not linear
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

167Leaf segments linear. Involucre of heads globose
Centaurea dichroantha A.Kern.

167Leaf segments not linear. Involucre cylindrical168
168Ray flowers present. Perennial
Jacobaea erucifolia (L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb. subsp. erucifolia

168Ray flowers absent. Annual
Senecio vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris

169Ray flowers white170
169No flower white173
170Heads solitary
Anthemis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis

170Heads numerous171
171Heads >1cm across. Leaves almost odourless
Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch.Bip.

171Heads >1 cm across. Leaves strongly smelling when crushed172
172Heads 4-5 mm long. Leaves usually >1.5 cm wide, in outline with curved sides, the segments linear-lanceolate, distant from one another
Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium

172Heads max. 3.5 mm long. Leaves usually <1.5 cm wide, in outline with more or less parallel sides, the segments ovate-lanceolate, crowded
Achillea collina (Becker ex Wirtg.) Heimerl

173Leaves green-on upperside, white to grey-hairy on lowerside
Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte

173Leaves not as above174
174Flowers not pink
Artemisia alba Turra

174Flowers pink175
175Heads > 1 cm across, without ray flowers. Inflorescence not umbrella-like 176
175Heads <1 cm across, with ray flowers. Inflorescence a corymb of heads, umbrella-like177
176Plant grey-hairy
Centaurea stoebe L.

176Plant not grey-hairy
Centaurea scabiosa L. subsp. scabiosa

177 Stems thin, <2 mm, diam., curved-ascending
Achillea roseoalba Ehrend.

177 Stems stout, >2 mm diam, erect
Achillea millefolium L. subsp. millefolium

178Flowers bilaterally symmetrical179
178Flowers radially symmetrical198
179Corolla with a spur or a sac-like swelling at base180
179Corolla without spur181
180Corolla >1.5 cm. Perennial of woody sites
Corydalis cava (L.) Schweigg. & Körte subsp. cava

180Corolla <1.5 cm. Annual of disturbed sites
Fumaria officinalis L. subsp. officinalis

181Flowers yellow182
181Flowers not yellow187
182Leaves not compound
Reseda lutea L. subsp. lutea

182Leaves compound183
183Leaves paripinnate, ending with a tendril
Lathyrus pratensis L. subsp. pratensis

183Leaves imparipinnate, ending with a leaflet184
184Terminal leaflet much wider than the others. Calyx swollen
Anthyllis vulneraria L.

184Terminal leaflet similar to the others. Calyx not swollen185
185Leaves with more than 5 leaflets
Hippocrepis comosa L. subsp. comosa

185Leaves with 5 leaflets186
186 Plant hairless or with a few sparse hairs, not restricted to dry grasslands
Lotus corniculatus L. subsp. corniculatus

186Plant densely hairy, restricted to dry grasslands
Lotus corniculatus L. subsp. delortii (Timb.-Lagr.) Nyman

187Leaves imparipinnate188
187Leaves paripinnate, ending with a tendril or with a point192
188Inflorescence a compound umbel. Flowers white
Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm.

188Inflorescence not a compound umbel. Flowers not white189
189Shrub, woody at base
Amorpha fruticosa L.

189Herbaceous plants190
190Leaf segments toothed to lobed. Petal fused. Fruit a capsule
Scrophularia canina L.

190Lef segments entire. Petals free. Fruit a legume191
191Inflorescence not globose. Leaves clearly hairy
Astragalus onobrychis L.

191Inflorescence globose. Leaves almost hairless
Securigera varia (L.) Lassen

192Leaves with less than 6 segments193
192Leaves with more than 6 segments194
193Stipules wider than 1/2 of stem
Lathyrus latifolius L.

193Stipules not wider than 1/2 of stem
Lathyrus sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris

194Flowers solitary or in inflorescences with less than 7 flowers195
194Inflorescences with more than 7 flowers196
195Flowers in a raceme
Ervilia hirsuta (L.) Opiz

195Flowers solitary or max in pairs, almost sessile
Vicia sativa L.

196Enlarged part of standard as long as 1/2 of claw. Calyx swollen at base. Stipules (at least in upper leaves) entire. Annual
Vicia dasycarpa Ten.

196Enlarged part of standard at least as long as claw (lens!). Calyx not swollen at base. Stipules divided ino 2 sickle-shaped segments. Perennial197
197Inflorescence < or = the corresponding leaf. Standard 8-12 mm, the expanded part c. as long as claw
Vicia cracca L.

197Inflorescence > the corresponding leaf. Standard 12-18 mm, the expanded part clearly longer than claw
Vicia tenuifolia Roth subsp. tenuifolia

198Inflorescence an umbel199
198Inflorescence not an umbel220
199Leaves 1-pinnate200
199Leaves 2-4-pinnate203
200Flowers yellow
Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. sativa

200Flowers not yellow201
201Leaves >10 cm wide. Fruits flattened and winged at margin
Heracleum sphondylium L. subsp. sphondylium

201Leaves <10 cm wide. Fruits unwinged202
202 Stems hollow, ridged, leafy. Basal leaves hairless, with leaflets >2.5 cm long, the lower ones stalked. Fruits with whitish ribs and styles longer than fruit
Pimpinella major (L.) Huds.

202 Stems not hollow, cylindrical or obtusely angled, leafless at least in upper part. Basal leaves short-haired, with sessile leaflets <2.5 cm long. Fruit ribs scarcely developed, the styles shorter than fruit
Pimpinella saxifraga L.

203Flowers yellow
Ferulago campestris (Besser) Grecescu

203Flowers not yellow204
204Flowers pink205
204Flowers white207
205Fruits flattened and winged
Angelica sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris

205Fruits unwinged206
206Leaf segments <2 mm wide
Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. subsp. glauca

206Leaf segments >2 mm wide
Aegopodium podagraria L.

207Fruit covered by spines or stiff bristles208
207Fruit without spines211
208Bracts of the umbel branched-trifid
Daucus carota L. subsp. carota

208Bracts absent or entire209
209Bracts lanceolate, as long as at least 1/2 of the rays of the umbel
Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm.

209Bracts absent or linear and much shorter than the rays210
210Bracts absent or 1-2. Fruit 3-5 mm long. Spines of fruit hooked (binocular!)
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link subsp. arvensis

210Bracts 4-6(-12). Fruit 2-3 mm. Spines not hooked
Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.

211Annual. Bracts of the small umbels longer than their rays and reflexed
Aethusa cynapium L. subsp. cynapium

211Perennial. Bracts of the small umbels not as above212
212Fruit not flattened, unwinged213
212Fruit flattened, winged216
213Ultimate leaf segments not thread-like, >2 mm wide214
213Ultimate leaf segments thread-like, <2 mm wide215
214Fruit oval, max. 2 times as long as wide. Leaves 2-ternate, the segments >1cm wide
Aegopodium podagraria L.

214Fruit cylindrical. Leaves 3-4-pinnate, the ultimate segments <1cm wide
Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. subsp. sylvestris

215Leaves 2-3-pinnate. Flowers hermaphrodite. Fruits not black and shiny at maturity
Seseli kochii Breistr.

215Leaves 3-ternate. Plant dioecious. Fruits black and shiny at maturity
Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. subsp. glauca

216Ultimate leaf segments max. 1 cm wide217
216Leaf segments 1-7 cm wide218
217Bracts pointing downwards
Oreoselinum nigrum Delarbre

217Bracts appressed to the rays of the umbel
Xanthoselinum venetum (Spreng.) Soldano & Banfi

218Main vein of lower leaf segments not arranged at the center of the blade
Tommasinia altissima (Mill.) Reduron

218Main vein of lower leaf segments at the center of the blade219
219Stem often reddish-violet in upper part. Leaf segments >2.5 cm, with teeth ending in a small white spine
Angelica sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris

219Stems green also in upper part. Leaf segments <2.5 cm, the teeth not ending in a small spine
Cervaria rivini Gaertn.

220Flowers yellow221
220Flowers not yellow234
221Plant with an orange latex
Chelidonium majus L.

221Plant without latex222
222Petals 5 or more223
222Petals 4227
223Stem thickened at base into a subterranean bulb c. 1 cm diam.
Ranunculus bulbosus L.

223Stem not thickened into a bulb224
224Leaves pinnately divided225
224Leaves palmately divided226
225Sepals 5+5. Carpels numerous
Geum urbanum L.

225Sepals 5. Carpels 2
Agrimonia eupatoria L. subsp. eupatoria

226Stems creeping. Flowers solitary
Potentilla reptans L.

226Stems not creeping. Flowers not solitary
Potentilla pusilla Host

227Leaves palmate. Stamens numerous
Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch.

227Leaves pinnate. Stamens 6 (4+2)228
228Petals pale yellow with violet veins, >1.5 cm
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.

228Petals bright yellow, <1.5 cm229
229Fruit as long as wide
Bunias orientalis L.

229Fruit at least 3 times as long as wide230
230Plant with a strong smell and flavour of rucola
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.

230Plant with a different smell and flavour231
231All leaves deeply divided
Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Besser subsp. sylvestris

231Basal leaves divided with a much wider terminal segment, stem leaves entire or weakly lobed232
232Leaves not clasping stem with base
Sinapis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis

232Leaves clasping stem with base233
233Basal leaves <20 cm long, not glaucous. Fruit rectangular in section. Beak <10% as long as the rest of the fruit
Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. subsp. arcuata (Opiz) Hayek

233Basal leaves >20 cm long, glaucous. Fruit circular in section. Beak >10% as long as the rest of the fruit
Brassica napus L.

234Leaves palmately divided235
234Leaves pinnately divided241
235Petals green
Helleborus viridis L. subsp. viridis

235Petals blue to pink236
236Petals rounded237
236Petals weakly 2-lobed238
237 Petals 5-9 mm long. Fruit with more than 6 ridges. Anthers yellow
Geranium purpureum Vill.

237Petals 9-13 mm long. Fruit with 5-6 ridges. Anthers orange
Geranium robertianum L.

238Calyx with an epicalyx at base. Fruits beakless
Malva sylvestris L.

238Calyx without an epicalyx. Fruits surmounted by a long beak239
239Leaves divided only to 2/3-4/5 of their length
Geranium molle L.

239Leaves completely divided240
240Flower-stalks shorter than the corresponding leaf. Sepals >7 mm
Geranium dissectum L.

240Flower-stalks much longer than the corresponding leaf. Sepals <7 mm
Geranium columbinum L.

241Petals not white242
241Petals white245
242Leaves strongly smelling when crushed
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.

242Leaves almost odourless243
243Petals not red
Thalictrum aquilegiifolium L. subsp. aquilegiifolium

243Petals red244
244Fruit hairless. Filaments of stamens not wider at apex (lens!)
Papaver rhoeas L. subsp. rhoeas

244Fruit hairy. Filamenti wider at apex
Papaver apulum Ten.

245Petals 5 or more
Filipendula vulgaris Moench

245Petals 4246
246Leaves compound
Cardamine hirsuta L.

246Leaves not compound247
247Petals >1cm long248
247Petals <1cm long249
248Leaves strongly smelling of rucola when crushed
Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.

248Leaves not smelling of rucola when crushed
Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. landra (Moretti ex DC.) Bonnier & Layens

249Fruit triangular in outline, narrower at base and 2-lobed at the top250
249Fruit not triangular251
250Petals 2-3 mm, >sepals. Sepals green
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. subsp. bursa-pastoris

250Petals 1.5-2 mm, ca =sepals. Sepals reddish
Capsella rubella Reut.

251Leaves <1 wide. Fruit not divided into two parts
Lepidium virginicum L. subsp. virginicum

251Leaves >1 cm. Fruit divided into two articles, the lower one cylindrical, the upper one globose and wider
Crambe tataria Sebeók

252With spines253
252Without spines255
253Plant evergreen, with leaves (actually stems resembling leaves: cladodes) pungent only at the top. Fruit fleshy
Ruscus aculeatus L.

253Plant not evergreen, with spines on the stems or on the margin of leaves. Fruit dry254
254Leaves <1 cm wide. Flowers yellow, not in heads
Genista germanica L.

254Leaves >1 cm wide. Flowers violet, in heads
Cirsium pannonicum (L.f.) Link

255Leaves arranged in whorls at nodes256
255Leaves not whorled268
256Leaves not linear257
256Leaves linear259
257Petals more than 4. Leaves >2cm wide. Flowers >1 cm across
Lysimachia vulgaris L.

257Petals 4. Leaves <2cm wide. Flowers <1 cm across258
258Flower-stalks with two small bracts at base. Stems hairless or with max. 0.5 mm long hairs
Cruciata glabra (L.) C.Bauhin ex Opiz

258Flower-stalks with 2 small bracts. Stems with 1-2 mm long hairs
Cruciata laevipes Opiz

259Flowers bilaterally symmetrical260
259Flowers radially symmetrical261
260On calcareous substrata. Stem hairs of equal length. Inflorescences with 8-15 flowers
Lotus germanicus (Gremli) Peruzzi

260On siliceous substrata (or terra rossa). Stem hairs of unequal length. Inflorescences usually with 12-25 flowers
Lotus herbaceus (Vill.) Jauzein

261Flowers yellow
Galium verum L. subsp. verum

261Flowers not yellow262
262Flowers pink to violet263
262Flowers white265
263Whorls with more than 4 leaves
Asperula purpurea (L.) Ehrend.

263Whorls with max. 4 leaves264
264 Corolla tube 2.5-4 mm, 1.5-4 times as long as lobes. Flower bracts much longer than fruit
Asperula aristata L.f. subsp. scabra Nyman

264 Corolla tube 1.5-2 mm, 1-1.5 times as long as lobes. Flower bracts shorter or equal to fruit
Asperula cynanchica L. subsp. cynanchica

265Plant not scabrid, without or with a few hooked hairs only. Perennial266
265Plant scabrid on leaves and stems, with dense hooked hairs. Annual267
266Leaves 5-7 mm wide and 3-8 times as long
Galium album Mill. subsp. album

266Leaves 1-2 mm wide and 8-30 times as long
Galium lucidum All. subsp. lucidum

267 Leaves with teeth pointing to base
Galium aparine L.

267 Leaves with teeth pointing to apex
Galium parisiense L.

268Plant always without flowers (Pteridophyte) or with flowers without petals269
268Plant with flowers and with petals403
269Leaves scale-like. Plant without flowers, reproducing by spores
Selaginella helvetica (L.) Link

269Leaves not scale-like. Plant with flowers270
270Leaves hastate, truncate or heart-shaped at base271
270Leaves not as above272
271Leaves usually <15 cm long. Wings of fruit entire. Plant acid-tasting
Rumex acetosa L. subsp. acetosa

271Leaves usually >15 cm long. Wings of fruit toothed. Plant not acid-tasting
Rumex obtusifolius L. subsp. obtusifolius

272Plants with a milky latex and with umbrella-like inflorescences273
272Plants without a milky latex and with umbrella-like inflorescences280
273Leaves linear, at least 7 times as long as wide
Euphorbia cyparissias L.

273Leaves not linear274
274Glands concave on outer edge275
274Glands rounded on outer edge277
275Plant >3 dm, typical of woody sites. Leaves >1 cm wide
Euphorbia amygdaloides L.

275Plant <3 dm, typical of dry sites. Leaves <1 cm wide276
276Bracts fused at base. Annual
Euphorbia falcata L. subsp. falcata

276Bracts free. Perennial
Euphorbia kerneri Huter

277Capsule smooth. annual
Euphorbia helioscopia L. subsp. helioscopia

277Capsule warty. Perennial278
278Bracts more or less triangular, with a truncate, wider base
Euphorbia dulcis L. subsp. incompta (Ces.) Nyman

278Bracts ovate, with a restricted base279
279 Leaf margin finely toothed. Capsule 2.5-4(5) mm wide
Euphorbia verrucosa L.

279 Leaf margin entire. Capsule 5-6 mm wide
Euphorbia carniolica Jacq.

280At least the basal leaves stalked281
280All leaves sessile, without stalk290
281Stems leafless (all leaves basal)576
281Stems leafy282
282Leaves >15 cm long. Fruit winged
Rumex crispus L.

282Leaves <15 cm long. Fruit unwinged283
283Leaves sticking to clothes284
283Leaves not sticking to clothes285
284Stems erect, usually not branched. Leaves lanceolate, usually >3 cm long. Sepals totally free, not much longer than fruit
Parietaria officinalis L.

284Stems prostrate to ascendeing, branched. Leaves rounded to ovate, usually <3 cm long. Sepals fused at base, at least 2 times as long as the fruit
Parietaria judaica L.

285Male flowers with 8-16 stamens, female flowers at the axil of 5-9-lobed fan-shaped bracts
Acalypha virginica L.

285Male flowers with less than 6 stamens, female flowers not at the axil of fan-shaped bracts286
286Sepals obtuse287
286Sepals acute288
287Leaves ovate to lanceolate in outline
Lipandra polysperma (L.) S.Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch

287At least the lower leaves rhombic in outline
Chenopodium album L. subsp. album

288Stems erect. Sepals 5
Amaranthus retroflexus L.

288Stems prostrate. Sepals 2-3289
289All flowers arranged in groups in leaf-axils
Amaranthus albus L.

289At least the upper flowers in a cylindrical spike
Amaranthus deflexus L.

290With a single leaf. Plant without flowers, reproducing by spores (fern)
Ophioglossum vulgatum L.

290With more than 1 leaf. Plant with flowers, reproducing by seeds291
291Plant reed-like, usually >2 m tall, the stem >1 cm wide292
291Plant not reed-like293
292Leaves >50 cm long, >7 cm wide. Glumes of equal length (lens!)
Arundo donax L.

292Leaves usually <50 cm long, <4 cm wide. Glumes different, one much shorter than the other
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. subsp. australis

293Flowers radially symmetrical (lens!)294
293Flowers not radially symmmetric297
294Stems leafy. Annual
Juncus bufonius L.

294Stem leafless. Perennial295
295Leaves all basal and similar to stem, hence plant apparently without leaves
Juncus articulatus L. subsp. articulatus

295Leaves all basal but different from stem296
296Basal sheaths yellowish brown, matt. Capsule club-shaped, truncate to concave at apex. Stems stiff and fragile, the medulla almost continuous
Juncus effusus L. subsp. effusus

296Basal sheaths brownish-black, shiny. Capsule oval, pointed at apex. Stems flexible, the medulla interrupted
Juncus inflexus L. subsp. inflexus

297Inflorescence viviparous, i.e. with bulbils producing small leaves instead of flowers
Poa bulbosa L. subsp. bulbosa

297Inflorescence not viviparous298
298Stems not hollow, triangular to circular in section, without nodes. Leaf sheats not open. Flowers subtended by a single bract. Stigmas 2-3, usually brought on an evident style (CYPERACEAE) 299
298Stems hollow, always circular to elliptic in section, with nodes. Flowers included between 2 bracts. Leaf sheaths usually open. Stigmas 2, sessile (POACEAE)320
299Flowers hermaphrodite (lens!)300
299Flowers unisexual301
300Inflorescence globose, with a long basal bract resembling the continuation of the stem
Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Soják

300Inflorescence oval, terminal
Schoenus nigricans L.

301All spikes similar, with both male and female flowers
Carex spicata Huds.

301Upper spikes with male flowers, lower spikes with female flowers302
302Female spikes >4cm long303
302Female spikes <4 cm long306
303With a single male spike304
303With more than 1 male spike305
304Leaves 7-15 mm wide, shiny. Female spikes 5-15 cm long, with dark bracts and green fruits
Carex pendula Huds.

304Leaves 3-6(-9) mm wide, matt. Female spikes 3-6 cm long. Bracts and fruits both green
Carex sylvatica Huds.

305 With stolons, not forming dense tufts. Female spikes <7 cm long
Carex riparia Curtis

305 Whithout stolons, forming dense tufts. Female spikes 5-12 cm long
Carex pendula Huds.

306Stigmas 2 (lens!)
Carex mucronata All.

306Stigmas 3307
307With more than 1 male spike308
307With a single male spike309
308Leaves hairless. Fruits acute but not ending with a true beak
Carex flacca Schreb. subsp. flacca

308Leaves hairy. Fruits progressively narrowing into a beak
Carex hirta L.

309Plant with stolons, not forming dense tufts310
309Plant without stolons, forming dense tufts314
310Plants exsclusive of wet sites311
310Plants absent from wet sites312
311Fruit densely hairy (lens!)
Carex tomentosa L.

311Fruit glabrous
Carex panicea L.

312Fruit hairy (lens!)
Carex caryophyllea Latourr.

312Fruit glabrous313
313Female spikes with 3-10 flowers
Carex alba Scop.

313Female spikes with more the 10 flowers
Carex liparocarpos Gaudin subsp. liparocarpos

314Fruit glabrous315
314Fruit hairy (lens!)316
315Female spikes dark brown to black
Carex distans L.

315Female spikes green to yellowish-green
Carex viridula Michx.

316Spikes present also in lower half of stem
Carex humilis Leyss.

316All spikes in upper half of stem317
317Bracts of female flowers not clasping stem for more than 2 mm, often poorly evident
Carex montana L.

317At least the bract of the lowest female spike clasping stem for 2-10 mm318
318 At least 1 female spike inserted much below the others
Carex digitata L.

318All spikes crowded at top of stem319
319 Male spike equal to or shorter than female spikes
Carex ornithopoda Willd.

319 Male spike much longer than female spikes
Carex umbrosa Host subsp. umbrosa

320With several linear spikes diverging at top of stem321
320With either a simple spike or a raceme325
321Spikelets awned
Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng

321Spikelets awnless322
322Spikelets 3-6-flowered (lens!)
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

322Spikelets 1-flowered323
323Spikes diverging from the same point at the top of stems. Ligule c. 0.5 mm, hairy. Spikelets in 2 rows
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.

323Spikes diverging from different points. Ligule 1-2 mm. Spikelets in 1 row324
324 Shaths of basal leaves hairy. Plant 1-4 dm tall. Upper glume < fertile lemma (lens!)
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.

324 Sheaths hairless. Plant to 2 dm tall. Upper glume c. equal to fertile lemma
Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweigg.) Schreb. ex Muhl. subsp. ischaemum

325Inflorescence a simple spike, the spikelets sessile of with a very short stalk326
325Inflorescence a raceme350
326Spikelets awnless327
326Spikelets awned337
327Spikelets alternate on two opposite sides of the stem328
327Spikelets arranged all round stem331
328Spikelets with the narrow edge fitting into depressions of the spike axis
Lolium perenne L.

328Spikelets not as above329
329Spikelets <4 mm long
Cynosurus cristatus L.

329Spikelets >4 mm long330
330Lemmas acute (lens!). Plant green, with creeping stolons, not forming tufts
Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens

330Lemmas obtuse. Plant usually bluish-green, without creeping stolons, forming tufts
Thinopyrum acutum (DC.) Banfi

331Spikelets with 1 fertile flower332
331Spikelets with more than 1 fertile flower334
332Spikelets in groups of 2-5. Glumes violet
Tragus racemosus (L.) All.

332Spikelets solitary. Glumes not violet333
333Inflorescence strongly hairy. Glumes not keeled
Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata

333Inflorescence not strongly hairy. Glumes keeled
Phleum phleoides (L.) H.Karst.

334Spikelets 2-flowered
Melica ciliata L. subsp. ciliata

334Spikelets 3-many-flowered335
335Sheaths of dead leaves forming a kind of bulb at the base of stem. Glumes different, one much shorter than the other (lens!)
Koeleria brevis Steven

335Sheaths not forming a bulb at the base of stem. Glumes of c. the same length336
336Leaves homogeneously and sparsely hairy, the hairs short. Stem thickened at base by the sheaths of dead leaves
Koeleria splendens C.Presl

336Leaves almost hairless on upperside but with marginal hairs of 0.5-1.5 mm. Stems not thickened at base
Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P.Beauv.

337Awn >1 cm338
337Awn <1 cm340
338Spikelets pointing to one direction
Festuca myuros L. subsp. myuros

338Spikelets pointing to all directions or arranged on opposite sides of stem339
339Spikelets 1-flowered, crowded in groups of 3 in a dense spike
Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinum

339Spikelets many-flowered, solitary and distant on opposite sides of stems
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) P.Beauv. subsp. sylvaticum

340Spikelets alternate on two opposite sides of the stem341
340Spikelets all round stem345
341Spikelets with the narrow edge fitting into depressions of the spike axis342
341Spikelets not as above343
342Leaves pale green, to 1 cm wide. Axe of spikelets rough. Spikelets to 3 cm long, the awn to 10 mm long. Plant forming lax tufts
Lolium multiflorum Lam.

342Leaves dark green, to 5 mm wide. Axis of spikelets smooth. Spikelets to 1.5 cm long, the awn <2 mm long. Plant forming dense tufts
Lolium perenne L.

343Spikelets diverging from stem. Glumes different, one much shorter than the other
Brachypodium rupestre (Host) Roem. & Schult.

343Spikelets not diverging from stem. Glumes of c. the same length344
344Lemmas acute (lens!). Plant green, with creeping stolons, not forming tufts
Elymus repens (L.) Gould subsp. repens

344Lemmas obtuse. Plant usually bluish-green, without creeping stolons, forming tufts
Thinopyrum acutum (DC.) Banfi

345Inflorescence ovate346
345Inflorescence cylindrical347
346Spikelets 1-flowered
Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

346Spikelets with more than 1 flower
Sesleria caerulea (L.) Ard. subsp. caerulea

347Awns originating from the glumes. Anters violet. Glumes of equal length348
347Awns originating from the base of spikelets (they are not true awns!) . Anters not violet. Glumes of unequal length349
348 Glumes 2.5-3 mm, with hairs of 0.9-1 mm
Phleum pratense L. subsp. pratense

348 Glumes to 2.2 mm, with hairs <0.9 mm
Phleum nodosum L.

349Awns yellowish-green to rusty. Leaves grey-green. Glumes not much different, as long as 1/2-2/3 of lemmas, the latter with thin transverse lines (lens!)
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.

349Awns green. Leaves green. Glumes very different, the lower one c.1/2 of the lemma, the other as long as the lemmas; lemmas without transverse lines
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv. subsp. viridis (L.) Thell.

350Spikelets awned351
350Spikelets awnless376
351Spikelets 1-flowered352
351Spikelets 2-many-flowered360
352Inflorescence a contracted raceme, or a raceme of spikes353
352Inflorescence a broad raceme354
353Inflorescence a raceme of spikes, with sessile spikelets. Awn not feathery
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv.

353Inflorescence a raceme, the spikelets not sessile. Awn feathery
Stipa eriocaulis Borbás subsp. eriocaulis

354Awn <5 mm355
354Awn >5 mm357
355Plant >1 m, forming dense tufts. Spikelets >4 mm
Tripidium ravennae (L.) H.Scholz subsp. ravennae

355Plant <1 m not forming dense tufts. Spikelets <4 mm356
356 Upper lemma absent or reduced to a small scale, as long as 1/4 of lower lemma
Agrostis canina L. subsp. canina

356 Upper lemma at least as long as 1/3 of the lower one
Agrostis stolonifera L. subsp. stolonifera

357Awn straight
Apera spica-venti (L.) P.Beauv. subsp. spica-venti

357Awn bent358
358Spikelets solitary
Achnatherum calamagrostis (L.) P.Beauv.

358Spikelets in groups of 3359
359Perennial. Glumes linear. Leaves c. 3 mm wide, hairy
Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin.

359Annual. Glumes ovate. Leaves >6 mm wide, hairless
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

360Awn bent361
360Awn straight367
361Awn <5 mm362
361Awn >5 mm363
362Perennial, >3 dm tall
Holcus lanatus L. subsp. lanatus

362Annual, <3 dm tall
Aira elegantissima Schur subsp. elegantissima

363Spikelets with a single awn
Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P.Beauv. ex J.Presl & C.Presl subsp. elatius

363Spikelets with at least 2 awns364
364Awn born at the top of lemma, between two teeth (lens!)
Bromus squarrosus L. subsp. squarrosus

364Awn on the back of lemma365
365Glumes of c. the same length. Annual
Avena barbata Pott ex Link

365Glumes of very unequal length366
366Ligule of upper leaves absent or <0.5 mm. Spikelets (without awns) <8 mm
Trisetaria flavescens (L.) Baumg. subsp. flavescens

366Ligule of upper leaves >1.5 mm. Spikelets (without awns) >8 mm
Avenula pubescens (Huds.) Dumort. subsp. pubescens

367Spikelets 2-flowered
Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P.Beauv. subsp. cespitosa

367Spikelets many-flowered368
368Awn not inserted between two teeth (lens!). Plant hairless or with very short hairs369
368Awn inserted between two teeth at the top of the lemma. Plant usually with long hairs at least on the leaf sheaths371
369Plant of dry grasslands, often blue-green. All leaves thread-like, the ligule with two lateral auricles (lens!)
Festuca stricta Host subsp. sulcata (Hack.) Patzke ex Pils

369Plant of forests or rich meadows. At least the stem-leaves flat. Ligules of sterile shoots without auricles370
370 Leaves 0.65-1.1 mm wide
Festuca rubra L. subsp. rubra

370 Leaves 0.3-0.65 mm wide
Festuca trichophylla (Ducros ex Gaudin) K.Richt. subsp. trichophylla

371Plant perennial, found in dry grasslands372
371Plant annual, found on disturbed ground373
372 Inflorescence contracted, the branches almost erect, only slightly longer than spikelets. Glumes almost equal, 7-8 mm long. Awn c. 5 mm long
Bromopsis erecta (Huds.) Fourr.

372 Inflorescence wide, with curved branches which are at least in part much longer than spikelets. Glumes of unequal length. Awn c. 8 mm long
Bromopsis erecta (Huds.) Fourr.

373Glumes ovate, <9 mm long, the lower one with 3-5 veins, the upper one with 7-9 veins (lens!)374
373Glumes linear-lanceolate >9 mm long, the lower one with 1 vein, the upper one with 3 veins375
374Leaves to 5 mm wide, the lower ones densely covered by < 1 mm long hairs. Spikelets usually longer than their stalks
Bromus hordeaceus L. subsp. hordeaceus

374Leaves 5-10 mm wide, the sheaths of the lower ones glabrous or with >1 mm long hairs. Spikelets usually shorter than their stalks
Bromus secalinus L.

375Spikelets drooping
Anisantha sterilis (L.) Nevski

375Spikelets more or less erect, not drooping
Anisantha diandra (Roth) Tutin ex Tzvelev

376Spikelets with 1 fertile flower only377
376Spikelets with more than 1 fertile flower384
377Glumes of c. the same length (lens!)378
377Glumes of very different length381
378Inflorescence poor, with max 10 spikelets. Spikelets with 1 fertile and 1 sterile flower
Melica uniflora Retz.

378Inflorescence with more than 10 spikelets. Spikelets with a single flower379
379Spikelets >4 mm
Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth subsp. epigejos

379Spikelets <4 mm380
380Basal stems not creeping nor rooting at nodes. Ligule wider than long, max. 1 mm long
Agrostis capillaris L. subsp. capillaris

380Basal stems creeping and rooting at nodes. Ligule longer than wide, 4-7 mm long
Agrostis stolonifera L. subsp. stolonifera

381Inflorescence >10 cm long382
381Inflorescence <10 cm long383
382 Leaf sheaths hairy (lens!). Branches of inflorescence pointing upwards, with spikelets only in the upper half of branch
Panicum capillare L.

382 Leaf sheaths hairless. Branches curved, with spikelets also in lower half of branch
Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx.

383 Spikelets 3-5 mm long
Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A.Gray) Alph.Wood

383 Spikelets 2.5-3 mm long
Sporobolus neglectus Nash

384Spikelets 2-flowered (lens!)385
384Spikelets 3-many-flowered387
385Spikelets distant from one another, hanging
Melica nutans L.

385Spikelets crowded, not hanging386
386 Lower lemma of lower flowers 4.5-6.5 mm long. Leaves (6-)8-12 mm wide
Molinia arundinacea Schrank

386 Lemma 3-4.5 mm long. Leaves 2-5(-7) mm wide
Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench

387Glumes at least as long as spikelet
Danthonia decumbens (L.) DC. subsp. decumbens

387Glumes much shorter than spikelet388
388Ligule a tuft of hairs389
388Ligule membranous390
389Leaf margin without yellowish glands (lens!). Spikelets 2-5 mm long
Eragrostis pilosa (L.) P.Beauv. subsp. pilosa

389Leaf margin with yellow glands. Spikelets >5 mm long
Eragrostis minor Host subsp. minor

390Inflorescence a contract raceme, either cylindrical and spike-like or of dense clusters of spikelets, at least the lowest one with a long stalk391
390Inflorescence a lax raceme394
391Spikelets born in dense, 1-sided clusters on a little branched raceme. Leaves hairless or with a few hairs only
Dactylis glomerata L. subsp. glomerata

391Spikelets not born in dense, 1-sided clusters. Leaves hairy392
392Sheaths of dead leaves forming a kind of bulb at the base of stem. Glumes different, one much shorter than the other (lens!)
Koeleria brevis Steven

392Sheaths not forming a bulb at the base of stem. Glumes of c. the same length393
393Leaves with 0.5-1.5 mm long hairs on the margin, almost hairless on the blade. Stem not thickened at base
Koeleria pyramidata (Lam.) P.Beauv.

393Leaves homogeneously and sparsely covered by short hairs. Stem thickened at base by a sheath of dead leaves
Koeleria splendens C.Presl

394Spikelets heart-shaped and drooping
Briza media L.

394Spikelets not heart-shaped and drooping395
395Spikelets >(2-) 3 times as long as wide, usually with more than 5 flowers and >4 mm long. Lower lemma not keeled (lens!)396
395Spikelets oval, max. 2-3 times as long as wide, with 4-5(-6) flowers, usually <4 mm long. Lower lemma keeled398
396Plant <3 dm tall. Inflorescence stiff, the spikelets pointing to the same direction
Catapodium rigidum (L.) C.E.Hubb. subsp. rigidum

396Plant >3 dm tall. Inflorescence soft, the spikelets pointing to all directions397
397Auricles at the base of leaf blade hairless (lens!). Sheaths of basal leaves reduced to reddish fibers. Leaf-blade soft and drooping
Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.

397Auricles hairy. Sheaths of basal leaves not reduced to fibers. Leaf-blade stiff
Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. subsp. arundinaceum

398Annual plant of disturbed sites, without sterile shoots, usually <2 dm tall
Poa annua L.

398Perennial plants >2 dm tall or if shorter with sterile shoots399
399Stems clearly flattened in upper part
Poa compressa L.

399Stems cylindrical in upper part400
400Inflorescence with 1-2 branches in the lowest whorl
Poa bulbosa L. subsp. bulbosa

400Inflorescence with 3-8 branches in the lowest whorl401
401Ligules >1 mm long
Poa sylvicola Guss.

401Ligules absent ot max. 1 mm long402
402Leaves flat or weakly convolute, >2 mm wide. Ligule decurrent. Inflorescence c. 2 times as long as wide
Poa pratensis L. subsp. pratensis

402 Leves thread-like, <2 mm wide. Ligule not decurrent. Inflorescence >2 times as long as wide
Poa angustifolia L.

403Flowers in heads with an involucre of bracts404
403Flowers not in heads with an involucre of bracts453
404Leaves heart-shaped to hastate at base405
404Leves not heart-shaped nor hastate at base412
405All leaves sessile
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.

405At lest the basal leaves with a long stalk406
406Heads with ray flowers, solitary, borne before leaves
Tussilago farfara L.

406Heads without ray flowers, numerous, borne after the leaves407
407Involucre of heads or fruits without hooked bracts or spines408
407Involucre of heads or fruits with hooked bracts or spines410
408Leaves not grey- to white-hairy on lowerside
Petasites hybridus (L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb. subsp. hybridus

408Leaves grey- to white-hairy on lowerside409
409Leaves kidney-shaped, with double toothing. Flowers whitish. Involucre of heads green
Petasites albus (L.) Gaertn.

409 Leaves triangular-hastate, with simple toothing. Flowers reddish-violet (rarely whitish). Involucre reddish
Petasites paradoxus (Retz.) Baumg.

410Flowers not violet. Involucre of heads without hooked bracts
Xanthium italicum Moretti

410Flowers violet. Involucre with hook-shaped bracts411
411Heads 3-4.5 cm wide, shorter than their stalks. All bracts of the involucre with green hooks
Arctium lappa L.

411Heads 1-2.5 cm wide, usually longer than their stalks. Upper bracts with reddish hooks
Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.

412Tubular (regular) flowers absent, all flowers ligulate (asymmetrical)413
412Tubular flowers present, ligulate flowers present only at the margin of heads or absent432
413Flowers pink-violet
Crepis froelichiana DC. ex Froel. subsp. dinarica (Beck) Gutermann

413Flowers yellow414
414Fruits without a pappus of hairs
Lapsana communis L. subsp. communis

414Fruits with a pappus of hairs415
415Pappus hairs simple (lens!)416
415Pappus hairs feathery424
416Stems leafless (all leaves basal)417
416Stems leafy419
417Leaves almost hairless. Plant without stolons
Taraxacum F.H.Wigg. sect. Taraxacum

417Leaves densely hairy at least on lowerside. Plant with stolons418
418Stolons >5 cm long. Bracts of involucre 0.5-2 mm long
Pilosella officinarum Vaill.

418Stolons short, 1-3 cm long. Bracts (1.5-)2-4 mm, long
Pilosella leucopsilon (Arv.-Touv.) Gottschl.

419Fruits with a long beak420
419Fruits beakless421
420Plant hairy. Beak of fruit not inserted in the center of a small apical crown (lens!)
Crepis taraxacifolia Thuill.

420Plant hairless. Beak of fruit inserted in the center of a small apical crown (lens!)
Chondrilla chondrilloides (Ard.) H.Karst.

421Leaves not linear. Inflorescence umbrella-like
Hieracium umbellatum L.

421Leaves linear. Inflorescence not umbrella-like422
422All leaves sessile and involucre of heads <9 mm wide. Mature fruits 1.5-2(-3) mm long, always black
Pilosella piloselloides (Vill.) Soják

422At least some leaves stalked or if all leaves sessile then heads >9 mm wide. Mature fruits (1.5)-3-5 mm long, black to pale brown423
423Leaves glaucous, hairless on upperside. Head-stalks and bracts of involucre without glands or with a few sparse glands, almost hairless
Hieracium porrifolium L.

423Leaves green, hairy on upperside. Involucre densely glandular-hairy
Hieracium bupleuroides C.C.Gmel.

424Leaves parallel-veined425
424Leaves not parallel-veined or veins indistinct427
425Bracts of the involucre arranged in a single series or in 2 series (one of longer, the other of much shorter bracts)
Tragopogon orientalis L.

425Bracts of the involucre arranged in more than 2 series426
426Lower bracts of the involucre blunt, white-hairy at margin
Takhtajaniantha austriaca (Willd.) Zaika, Sukhor. & N.Kilian

426 Lower bracts acute, hairless
Gelasia villosa (Scop.) Cass. subsp. villosa

427Stems leafy***FINQUI
Picris hieracioides L. subsp. hieracioides

427Stems leafless or with a few short bracts only (well-developed leaves all basal)428
428Heads usually more than 1. Thalamus hairy (lens!)429
428Heads solitary. Thalamus not hairy430
429 Basal leaves to 3 cm wide, not dark-spotted
Hypochaeris radicata L.

429 Basal leaves 4-6 cm wide, often dark-spotted
Hypochaeris maculata L.

430Plant with a non-vertical rhizome
Leontodon hispidus L. subsp. hispidus

430Plant with a thick vertical root431
431 Leaves densely covered by short stellate hairs with more than 6 rays (lens!)
Leontodon berinii (Bartl.) Roth

431 Leaves with long and soft hairs with less than 6 rays
Leontodon incanus (L.) Schrank

432Stems leafless or with a few short bracts only (well-developed leaves all basal)433
432Stems leafy434
433Central flowers yellow, ray flowers white
Bellis perennis L.

433All flowers pale blue
Globularia cordifolia L.

434Leaves >5 cm wide. Plant usually >15 dm tall
Helianthus tuberosus L.

434Leaves <5 cm wide. Plant <15 dm tall435
435All flowers yellow436
435At least some flowers not yellow441
436Heads <1 cm wide437
436Heads >1 cm wide438
437 Heads >7 mm long, pointing to all directions
Solidago virgaurea L. subsp. virgaurea

437 Heads <7 mm long, arranged unilaterally on diverging, curved branches
Solidago gigantea Aiton

438Fruits without a pappus of hairs
Buphthalmum salicifolium L. subsp. salicifolium

438Fruits with a pappus of hairs439
439Leaves not clasping stem with base
Pentanema ensifolium (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

439Leaves clasping stem with base440
440Leaves shiny and hairless on upperside
Pentanema salicinum (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

440Leaves hairy also on upperside
Pentanema hirtum (L.) D.Gut.Larr., Santos-Vicente, Anderb., E.Rico & M.M.Mart.Ort.

441At least some flowers white to whitish442
441All flowers blue, pink or violet445
442Ray flowers >1.5 cm
Leucanthemum ircutianum DC. subsp. ircutianum

442Ray flowers absent or <1.5 cm443
443Ray flowers absent
Erigeron sumatrensis Retz.

443Ray flowers present444
444Heads >1 cm wide. Ray flowers spreading
Erigeron annuus (L.) Desf.

444Heads >1 cm wide. Ray flowers short, erect
Erigeron canadensis L.

445Flowers pale to dark blue446
445Flowers pink to purple447
446All flowers pale blue. Margin of bracts green and entire
Globularia bisnagarica L.

446At least the marginal flowers blue-violet. Bracts of the involucre with a toothed and dark margin
Centaurea triumfettii All.

447Ray flowers absent448
447Ray flowers present450
448Bracts of the involucre ending with a black-fringed appendix
Centaurea nigrescens Willd. subsp. nigrescens

448Bracts ending with a brown-membranous appendix449
449 Bracts 5-8 mm wide
Centaurea jacea L. subsp. forojulensis (Poldini) Greuter

449 Bracts 4-5 mm wide
Centaurea jacea L. subsp. gaudinii (Boiss. & Reut.) Gremli

450Ray flowers pale-coloured
Erigeron annuus (L.) Desf.

450Ray flowers bright-coloured451
451Heads 2-5. Leaves somehow fleshy
Aster amellus L.

451 Heads more than 10. Leaves not fleshy452
452 Stem and involucre of heads not glandular-sticky. Pappus snow-white
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L.Nesom

452 Stem and involucre glandular-sticky. Pappus brownish
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L.Nesom

453Leaves needle-like454
453Leaves not needle-like457
454Petals bright yellow. Stamens more than 10
Fumana procumbens (Dunal) Gren. & Godr.

454Petals of other colours. Stamens less than 10455
455Flowers pink. Leaves stiff. Small shrub
Erica carnea L. subsp. carnea

455Flowers not pink. Leaves soft. Herbs456
456 Leaves (they are actually modified stems!) in whorls of 3-8
Asparagus officinalis L. subsp. officinalis

456 Leaves in whorls of 10-30
Asparagus tenuifolius Lam.

457Inflorescence an umbel. Plant smelling of garlic458
457Inflorescence not an umbel. Plant not smelling of garlic463
458Plant restricted to wet sites
Allium angulosum L.

458Plant of rather dry sites459
459Leaves flat
Allium lusitanicum Lam.

459Leaves cylindrical460
460Inflorescence without bulbils461
460Inflorescence with bulbils among the flowers462
461Umbel contracted, globose, with a sheath divided into 2-5 parts. Bulbs ovoid
Allium sphaerocephalon L. subsp. sphaerocephalon

461Umbel lax, irregular, with a single sheath. Bulbs subglobose
Allium vineale L.

462Filaments of the 3 lower stamens simple (lens!)
Allium carinatum L.

462Filaments divided at the top into 3 segments, the central one bearing the anther
Allium vineale L.

463Flowers bilaterally symmetrical464
463Flowers radially symmetrical499
464Leaves heart-shaped at base465
464Leaves not heart-shaped at base473
465Corolla without a spur466
465Corolla spurred467
466Flowers solitary
Aristolochia pallida Willd.

466Flowers in clusters
Aristolochia clematitis L.

467Petals fused. Leaves lobed
Cymbalaria muralis G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb. subsp. muralis

467Petals free. Leaves not lobed468
468Petals white
Viola alba Besser

468Petals violet469
469Leaves and flowers originating from stems470
469Leaves and flowers originating from the ground471
470Sepals with an appendix of 2-3 mm. Corolla 15-25 mm wide, the spur whitish
Viola riviniana Rchb. subsp. riviniana

470 Sepals with an indistinct appendix <1 mm. Corolla 10-18 mm wide. Spur dark violet
Viola reichenbachiana Jord. ex Boreau

471Without stolons. Flowers odourless
Viola hirta L.

471With stolons. Flowers sweet-scented472
472Petals dark violet. Stipules broadly oval. Leaves rounded, obtuse
Viola odorata L.

472Petals pale violet. Stipules linear-lanceolate. Leaves oval, acute
Viola alba Besser

473Petals of various colours. At least the basal leaves stalked474
473Petals uniformly coloured. All leaves sessile475
474Lower petal 12-25 mm, to 2 times as long as calyx
Viola tricolor L.

474Lower petal 8-15 mm, max. slightly longer than calyx
Viola arvensis Murray

475Flowers spurred476
475Flowers without a spur486
476Petals yellow
Linaria vulgaris Mill. subsp. vulgaris

476Petals not yellow477
477Petals white to greenish white
Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich.

477Petals at least in part pink to violet478
478All petals fused. Calyx present. Leaves pinnately-veined or with indistinct veins479
478At least some petals free. Calyx absent. Leaves parallel-veined480
479Fruit-stalks 3-8 mm. Corolla 4-6 mm. Capsule globose
Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange subsp. litorale (Willd.) Hayek

479Fruit-stalks (5-)8-20 mm. Corolla 6-9 mm. Capsule oval, c. 3 x 5 mm
Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange subsp. minus

480Outer petals spreading, not forming a kind of helmet481
480Outer petals forming a kind of helmet482
481Inflorescence <4 times as long as wide
Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich.

481Inflorescence >4 times as long as wide
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R.Br.

482Spur horizontal or pointing upwards
Anacamptis morio (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

482Spur clearly pointing downwards483
483Central lobe of lip rounded, entire
Anacamptis coriophora (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

483Central lobe of lip 2-lobed to bifid484
484 Central lobe of the lip bifid. Bracts subtending the flowers very short, scale-like
Orchis militaris L.

484Central lobe of lip with two shallow lobes. Bracts at least as long as 1/2 of the ovary485
485Outer petals blunt, free, reddish brown
Neotinea ustulata (L.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

485Outer petals acute, fused at base, pale purple
Neotinea tridentata (Scop.) R.M.Bateman, Pridgeon & M.W.Chase

486Leaves not parallel-veined or with indistinct veins487
486Leaves clearly parallel-veined491
487Petals not yellow488
487Petals yellow489
488Leaves covered by stiff, prickly hairs, the basal ones usually in a rosette and >3 cm long
Echium vulgare L. subsp. vulgare

488Leaves hairless or with soft hairs, the basal ones not in a rosette and <3 cm long
Polygala comosa Schkuhr

489Standard (upper petal) hairy
Genista sericea Wulfen subsp. sericea

489Standard hairless490
490Stems prostrate. Standard and keel more or less parallel, their apices a few mm distant from one another
Cytisus pseudoprocumbens Markgr.

490Stems not prostrate. Standard pointing upwards, keel downwards, their apices at least 0.7 mm far apart
Genista tinctoria L.

491Flowers >3 cm across
Gladiolus illyricus W.D.J.Koch

491Flowers <3 cm across492
492At least some petals white or whitish493
492Petals not white495
493Flowers spirally arranged. Petals <6 mm
Spiranthes spiralis (L.) Chevall.

493Flowers not spirally arranged. Petals >6 mm494
494The outer 3 petals not white. Ovaries divergent from stem, fruits drooping at maturity. Plant of wet sites
Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz

494All petal white. Ovaries and fruits erect. Plant not in wet sites
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch

495Outer petals incurved to form a kind of helmet. Lip triangular
Serapias vomeracea (Burm.f.) Briq.

495Outer petals spreading. Lip not triangular496
496Ovaries horizontal. Lip usually <1.2 cm long. Fruits drooping at maturity
Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser

496Ovaries more or less erect. Lip usually >1.2 cm long. Fruits not drooping497
497Structure protecting the ovary curved and S-shaped
Ophrys apifera Huds.

497Structure protecting the ovary not S-shaped498
498 Base of lip with 2 poorly evident warts. Upper inner petals yellowish
Ophrys sphegodes Mill. subsp. sphegodes

498 Base of lip with 2 evident conical warts. Upper inner petals pink
Ophrys incubacea Bianca subsp. incubacea

499Stems creeping, winding or climbing500
499Stems not creeping, winding or climbing506
500Petals white501
500Petals not white503
501Petals free. Flowers <1 cm, not bell-shaped. Fruit winged
Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub

501Petals fused. Flowers > 1 cm, bell-shaped. Fruit not winged502
502Flowers 3-4.5 cm long. Calyx partially hidden by two leafy bracts
Convolvulus sepium L.

502Flowers 1.5-3 cm long. Calyx not hidden, the bracts short
Convolvulus arvensis L.

503Petals yellowish-green. Leaves shiny on upperside
Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin

503Petals pink to violet. Leaves matt on upperside504
504Petals violet. Fruit a red berry
Solanum dulcamara L.

504Petals pale pink. Fruit dry505
505Petals free. Flowers <1 cm, not bell-shaped
Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á.Löve

505Petals fused. Flowers > 1 cm, bell-shaped
Convolvulus arvensis L.

506Petals yellow to orange507
506Petals of other colours525
507All leaves <3 cm long508
507At least the basal leaves >3 cm long511
508Petals 4. Plant not succulent509
508Petal 5 or more. Plant succulent, with fleshy leaves510
509Petals free. Plant grey-hairy, <3 dm tall
Alyssum montanum L.

509Petals fused. Plant not grey-hairy, >3 dm tall
Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ.

510Fruits not star-shaped at maturity, erect. Plant >15 cm tall. Leaves acute
Petrosedum thartii (L.P.Hébert) Niederle

510Fruits star-shaped at maturity. Plant <10 cm tall. Leaves blunt
Sedum sexangulare L.

511Leaves clearly parallel-veined512
511Leaves not parallel-veined or veins indistinct515
512Leaves <2 cm wide. Flowers <2 cm across
Loncomelos pyrenaicum (L.) L.D.Hrouda subsp. pyrenaicum

512Leaves >2 cm wide. Flowers >2 cm across513
513Flowers yellow
Limniris pseudacorus (L.) Fuss

513Flowers orange514
514Leaves also on stems
Lilium bulbiferum L. subsp. bulbiferum

514Leaves all basal
Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.

515Petals 4516
515Petals 5 or more518
516Petals >2 cm long
Oenothera biennis L.

516Petals <2 cm long517
517Leaves with stiff hairs
Biscutella laevigata L. subsp. laevigata

517Leaves hairless
Brassica glabrescens Poldini

518Without leafy stems (leaves all basal)
Primula vulgaris Huds. subsp. vulgaris

518With leafy stems519
519Petals free520
519Petals fused at least at base521
520Calyx present
Ficaria verna Huds. subsp. fertilis (Lawalrée ex Laegaard) Stace

520Calyx absent
Caltha palustris L.

521Corolla with a long tube, cylindrical to bell-shaped522
521Corolla with a short tube523
522All leaves sessile, hairless
Cerinthe minor L. subsp. minor

522At least the basal leaves stalked and hairy
Symphytum officinale L.

523Filaments of stamens with violet hairs
Verbascum chaixii Vill. subsp. chaixii

523Filaments whith whitish hairs524
524Upper leaves not decurrent on stem. Basal leaves with a long stalk
Verbascum phlomoides L.

524Upper leaves decurrent on stem. Basal leaves sessile or with a very short stalk
Verbascum thapsus L. subsp. thapsus

525Petals not white526
525Petals white553
526At least the basal leaves truncate to heart-shaped at base527
526All leaves tapering to base532
527Petals 2-lobed at apex, free. Leaves palmately-veined528
527Petals entire at apex, fused at least at base. Leaves pinnately-veined529
528Petals white to pale pink, <12 mm long. Flower-stalks curved in the fruit. Fruits smooth on the back
Malva neglecta Wallr.

528Petals purplish-violet, >12 mm long.Flower-stalks not curved. Fruits reticulately ridged on the back
Malva sylvestris L.

529Petals 4. Flowers <1cm across530
529Petals 5. Flowers >1 cm across531
530Leaves 3-lobed. Capsule globose, non flattened
Veronica hederifolia L.

530Leaves not 3-lobed. Capsule strongly flattened, heart-shaped at top
Veronica persica Poir.

531Flowers 1-3 cm long. Calyx teeth curved. Flowers in axils of short bracts. Stems cylindrical
Campanula rapunculoides L. subsp. rapunculoides

531Flowers 3-6 cm long. Calyx teeth appressed to corolla. Flowers in axils of normal leaves. Stems angular
Campanula trachelium L. subsp. trachelium

532Petals white to greenish-white533
532Petals blue to pink535
533Petals free. Flowers >8 mm across
Loncomelos pyrenaicum (L.) L.D.Hrouda subsp. pyrenaicum

533Petals fused. Flowers <8 mm across534
534Bract max. as long as the corresponding flower
Thesium linophyllon L.

534Bract 2-5 times as long as flower
Thesium humifusum DC.

535Leaves parallel-veined. Calyx absent536
535Leaves not parallel-veined or veins indistinct. Calyx present540
536Leaves absent at flowering, >4 cm wide
Colchicum autumnale L.

536Leaves present at flowering <4 cm wide537
537Flowers >2 cm across, solitary
Chamaeiris graminea (L.) Medik.

537Flowers <2 cm across, not solitary538
538Inflorescence ending with a tuft of long-stalked sterile flowers. Filaments of stamens in 2 rows (lens!)
Muscari comosum (L.) Mill.

538Inflorescence not as above. Filaments of stamens in a single row539
539Leaves 2-5, usually shorter than stem
Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. subsp. botryoides

539Leaves 2-5, longer than stem
Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten.

540At least the basal leaves >5 cm wide
Symphytum officinale L.

540All leaves <5 cm wide541
541Petals 4542
541Petals 5 or more544
542Leaves linear
Chamaenerion dodonaei (Vill.) Schur ex Fuss

542Leaves not linear543
543Petals >8 mm long. Fruit at least 5 times as long as wide
Matthiola fruticulosa (L.) Maire subsp. valesiaca (Boiss.) P.W.Ball

543Petals <8 mm long. Fruit max. 2 times as long as wide
Aethionema saxatile (L.) R.Br.

544Leaves linear
Linum tenuifolium L.

544Leaves not linear545
545Flowers in spikes, <3 mm across. Petals free546
545Flowers not in spikes, >3 mm across. Petals fused548
546Spikes interruped, curved
Persicaria mitis (Schrank) Assenov

546Spikes dense, not curved547
547Leaf sheaths hairy, fringed
Persicaria maculosa Gray

547Leaf sheaths hairless, entire or weakly toothed
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre subsp. lapathifolia

548Flowers clearly bell-shaped549
548Flowers not bell-shaped550
549Flowers in a long raceme
Campanula sibirica L. subsp. sibirica

549Flowers in heads
Campanula glomerata L.

550Flowers >1 cm across
Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Chaix subsp. speculum-veneris

550Flowers <1 cm across551
551Fruit spiny
Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.

551Fruits not spiny552
552Calyx with two types of hairs: some much thicker and longer than others (lens!)
Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill subsp. arvensis

552Calyx hairs all similar
Myosotis scorpioides L. subsp. scorpioides

553Petals 5 or more554
553Petals 4567
554Plant with woody and creeping stems, with coriaceous leaves. Petals usually 8
Dryas octopetala L. subsp. octopetala

554Plant herbaceous. Petals less than 8555
555At least the basal leaves stalked556
555All leaves sessile561
556Leaves parallel-veined. Flowers solitary
Parnassia palustris L. subsp. palustris

556Leaves not parallel-veined. Flowers not solitary557
557Leaves palmately-veined. Petals 2-lobed
Malva neglecta Wallr.

557Leaves pinnately-veined or veins indistinct. Petals entire558
558Leaves >10 cm wide. Flowers >10 cm long
Datura stramonium L.

558Leaves <10 cm wide. Flowers <10 cm long559
559Petals fused at base. Flowers in racemes. Fruit a berry
Solanum nigrum L.

559Petals free. Flowers in spikes. Fruit dry560
560Leaf sheaths hairless, entire or weakly toothed
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Delarbre subsp. lapathifolia

560Leaf sheaths hairy, fringed
Persicaria maculosa Gray

561Leaves 3-lobed. Annual
Saxifraga tridactylites L.

561Leaves not lobed. Perennial562
562Leaves >2 cm wide563
562Leaves <2 cm wide564
563Stem angular. Flowers single or rarely in pairs
Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce

563Stem cylindrical. Flowers in groups of 3-5
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All.

564Stems creeping. Flowers in axils of normal leaves
Polygonum arenastrum Boreau

564Stems not creeping. Flowers not in axils of normal leaves565
565Petals free. Flowers >8 mm across
Anthericum ramosum L.

565Petals fused at base. Flowers <8 mm across566
566Bract max. as long as the corresponding flower
Thesium humifusum DC.

566Bract max. as long as the corresponding flower
Thesium linophyllon L.

567Stems leafy568
567Stems leafless (all leaves basal)574
568Fruit at least 5 times as long as wide569
568Fruit max. 2 times as long a wide571
569Stem leaves not heart-shaped nor clasping stem with base
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

569Leaves heart-shaped or clasping stem with base570
570Stem-leaves stalked, weakly smelling of garlic when crushed
Alliaria petiolata (M.Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

570Stem-leaves sessile, not smelling of garlic
Arabis sagittata (Bertol.) DC.

571Leaves not clasping stem with base
Aethionema saxatile (L.) R.Br.

571Leaves clasping stem with base572
572Fruit not triangular in outline
Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K.Mey.

572Fruit triangular in outline, narrower at base and 2-lobed at the top573
573Petals 2-3 mm, >sepals. Sepals green
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. subsp. bursa-pastoris

573Petals 1.5-2 mm, ca =sepals. Sepals reddish
Capsella rubella Reut.

574Leaves <2 cm long. Annual <1 dm
Draba verna L. subsp. praecox (Steven) Rouy & Foucaud

574Leaves >2 cm long. Perennnial >1 dm575
575Petals 3. Flowers in racemes
Alisma plantago-aquatica L.

575Petals 4. Flowers in spikes576
576Leaves <3 times as long as wide, ovate to elliptic577
576Leaves much longer than wide578
577Leaves truncate to heart-shaped at base, hairless or with a few hairs only. Spikes usually interrupted at base. Stamens with filaments longer than corolla, the anthers yellowish
Plantago major L.

577Leaves progressively thinned into the stalk, with dense short hairs. Spikes not interrupted at base. Stamens with filaments exceeding the corolla by 4-8 mm, the anthers pale violet
Plantago media L. subsp. media

578Leaves linear, <5 mm wide
Plantago subulata L.

578Leaves not linear, >5 mm wide579
579Main root subdivided into hair-like, twisted secondary roots. Plant of disturbed sites and meadows
Plantago lanceolata L.

579Secondary roots thick (c. 1 mm), straight. Plant of dry grasslands of or wet sites580
580Plant of wet sites. Leaves >3 cm wide
Plantago altissima L.

580Plant of dry sites. Leaves < 3 cm wide
Plantago argentea Chaix subsp. liburnica Ravnik